- Research article
- Open Access
Enhanced recovery of alkaline protease from fish viscera by phase partitioning and its application
© Ketnawa et al.; licensee Chemistry Central Ltd. 2013
- Received: 25 December 2012
- Accepted: 24 April 2013
- Published: 30 April 2013
Too many different protein and enzyme purification techniques have been reported, especially, chromatographic techniques. Apart from low recovery, these multi-step methods are complicated, time consuming, high operating cost. So, alternative beneficially methods are still required. Since, the outstanding advantages of aqueous two phase system (ATPS) such as simple, low cost, high recovery and scalable, ATPS have been used to purify various enzymes. To improve purification efficiency, parameters affected to enzyme recovery or purity was investigated. The objectives of the present study were to optimize of alkaline protease recovery from giant catfish fish viscera by using ATPS and to study of hydrolytic patterns against gelatin.
Using 70% (w/w) crude enzyme extract (CE) in system (15% PEG2000-15% sodium citrate) provided the highest recovery, PF and KE. At unmodified pH (8.5) gave the best recovery and PF with compare to other pHs of the system. The addition of 1% (w/w) NaCl showed the recovery (64.18%), 3.33-fold and 15.09 of KE compared to the system without NaCl. After addition of 10% (w/w) sodium citrate in the second ATPS cycle, the highest protease recovery (365.53%) and PF (11.60-fold) were obtained. Thus, the top phase from the system was subjected to further studied. The protein bands with molecular weights (MWs) of 20, 24, 27, 36, 94 and 130 kDa appeared on the protein stained gel and also exhibited clear zone on casein-substrate gel electrophoresis. The β, α1, α2 of skin gelatin extensively degraded into small molecules when treated with 10 units of the extracted alkaline protease compared to those of the level of 0.21 units of Flavourzyme.
Repetitive ATPS is the alternative strategy to increase both recovery and purity of the alkaline protease from farmed giant catfish viscera. Extracted alkaline protease exposed very high effectiveness in gelatin hydrolysis. It is suggested that the alkaline protease from this fish viscera can further be used in protein hydrolysate production.
- Alkaline Protease
- Crude Enzyme Extract
- Purification Fold
- Caseinolytic Activity
- Mango Peel
Nowadays, the efficient and economical downstream processes for the partitioning and purification of biomolecules that give high recovery and high purity of the product are required by industries . Recovery and purification of biomolecules is a complicated, cost intensive process and can account for up to 70% of the production cost of biomolecules . Most previous works reported that to purify protease from fish digestive organs involved several methods, including ammonium sulphate precipitation , size exclusion chromatography , ion-exchange chromatography , hydrophobic interaction chromatography and affinity chromatography [6, 7]. These multi-step purification methods result in very high cost of operation, difficult to operate and scale up, time consuming purification process and relatively low recovery.
Aqueous two phase system (ATPS) could be an efficient method for the recovery of protease due to the ease and lower cost . ATPS have several advantages in comparison with conventional methods for the isolation and purification of proteins such as low cost, nontoxic, the possibility of application on a large scale and the short time required for reaching equilibrium . ATPS is a very mild method of protein purification, and denaturation or loss of biological activity is not usually seen .
One of the critical factors for enzyme purification by using ATPS is the selection of the appropriate system conditions. The selective distribution of ATPS constituents may be affected by different factors for example the nature and size of the bioactive compounds, initial composition of the system, molecular structure and chain size of the polymer, type of salt, system temperature, pH, NaCl addition, and number of cycle of ATPS [10, 11]. The pH value and the presence of electrolytes in the system have a pronounced effect on the partitioning of proteins between the two phases .
The Giant catfish (Pangasianodon gigas) is one of the economically important farmed fish that has been successfully cultured in Northern Thailand, especially in Chiang Rai province . The edible portion of farmed giant catfish is about 50-60%, implicating that another 40-50% of whole weight generated as a by-product . Its viscera accounts for about 5-10% of the entire weight [15, 16]. Besides, the discarding of fish by-products creates the environmental problem as well as disposal problem due to high fat content and other proteins that boosting microorganism growth.
Viscera have wide biotechnological potential as a source of digestive enzymes that may have some unique properties for industrial applications, e.g. in the detergent, food, pharmaceutical, leather and silk industries . The most important of these are acid stomach enzymes, pepsin, and alkaline intestine enzymes. The main alkaline protease in fish viscera are trypsin, chymotrypsin and elastase, all belonging to the serine-protease family (E.C. 3.1.21.x) . The use of alkaline proteases has increased remarkably, since they are both stable and active under harsh conditions, such as at temperatures of 50-60°C, high pH and in the presence of surfactants or oxidizing agents .
The alkaline protease was extracted from the viscera (intestine) of Nile tilapia by using heat treatment, ammonium sulphate fractionation and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration, presenting yield and purification of 30% and 22-fold, respectively . Klomklao et al.  reported partitioning of spleen proteinase from yellowfin tuna by ATPS (comprising PEG1000 (15%, w/w) and magnesium sulfate (20%, w/w)) showed high yield (69.0%), and purification fold (6.61). Various related works reported about extraction and purification of enzymes from fish viscera and their application in different aspects [15, 20, 21]. Nonetheless, there are few practically up-to-date reports related to enhance of recovery and purity of enzymes from fish viscera. Hence, the objectives of present study were to enhance alkaline protease recovery by using farmed giant catfish viscera as raw material in ATPS, to study different parameters influenced on partition of enzymes, and to apply extracted enzymes in gelatin hydrolysis.
From previous researches, fish viscera can be valuable sources for enzyme extraction. Furthermore, the extracted enzymes from viscera are distinctively useful in industrial applications. Thus, study on the potential use of viscera from farmed giant catfish is needed. Until now, no information has been reported on the optimization of alkaline protease from this fish. Nevertheless, no information regarding application of alkaline protease on hydrolysis of farmed giant catfish skin gelatin.
Effect of crude enzyme extracts on the protease partitioning
Effect of pH on the protease partitioning
Effect of NaCl on the protease partitioning
According to the results, the ATPS formed 70% (w/w) of CE with 15% PEG2000-15% sodium citrate systems, without pH modification and NaCl addition, was chosen for the subsequent studies.
Repetitive ATPS for protease recovery
Two steps of aqueous two phase partitioning of alkaline protease from farmed giant catfish viscera
Total activity (U)
Total protein (mg)
Specific activity (U/mg)
Protein pattern and zymography
Activity staining of ATPS fractions by using casein as substrate was shown in Figure 5B. A protein bands with the MWs of 20, 24, 27, 36, 94 and 130 kDa were estimated from the activity bands on the casein substrate gel electrophoresis. The presence of the clear zone suggested that it is the protease that can hydrolyze casein in the gel. There were 3 major clear zones (24, 36 and 130 kDa) that can be distinctively observed. The apparent MWs of trypsin-like enzyme were estimated to be 48, 23 and 23 kDa for skipjack, tongol and yellowfin tuna spleen, respectively . MWs of trypsin-like enzymes from pyloric caeca brownstripe red snapper were 20, 24–29, 45 and 97 kDa; bigeye snapper were 17, 20, 22, 45 and 97 kDa; and threadfin bream were 20, 22, 36 and 45 kDa . Slightly greater band intensity at 24–36 kDa in ATPS fraction was observed, suggesting the higher specific activity of alkaline protease loaded into the gel and supplied interesting results for further purification. These 24–36 kDa fractions also contained most of the interfering proteins. Consequencely, the extracted protease should demonstrate to further purification step namely size exclusion chromatography for gaining a single band of the enzyme.
Gelatin hydrolysis study
ATPS with 15% PEG2000-15% sodium citrate, pH 8.5, containing 70% (w/w) crude enzyme extract provided the best enzyme recovery and purity. The pH and NaCl concentration had no effect on partitioning of the target enzyme. Addition of more salt content could improve the enzyme recovery in the second ATPS. Based on the protein degradation of gelatin, the alkaline protease from farmed giant catfish viscera can further be used in production of protein hydrolysate. ATPS could be potentially improved and applied as a commercially viable process for purification of proteases or other enzymes from any fish species because the method is rapid, efficient, cost-effective, and easy to scale up for industrial production. Especially, the repetitive ATPS exhibited exceedingly increase in purity and recovery. As a result, extracted alkaline protease from fish viscera, with a high purification factor and recovery, could be an excellent choice in application of food, detergent, biotechnology, and pharmacology industries.
Chemicals and reagents
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 2000, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were obtained from Fluka (Buchs, Switzerland). Flavourzyme (protease, from Aspergillus oryzae ≥500 U/mg; code P6110), Beta-mercaptoethanol (βME) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO, USA). N,N,N,N-tetramethyl ethylene diamine (TEMED) was purchased from Bio-Rad Laboratories (Hercules, CA, USA). Sodium citrate (Na3C6H5O7) and sodium chloride (NaCl) derived from Univar (Ajax Finechem, Australia). Trichloroacetic acid (TCA), hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, tris-(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane and other chemicals with analytical grade were obtained from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany).
Gelatin will be extracted from prepared fish skin of farmed giant catfish (Pangasianodon gigas) as described in Sai-Ut et al. . Washed skin will be soaked in 0.2 mol/L NaOH (1:10 of a skin (g) to solution (mL) ratio) at 4±1°C for 2 h with a continuous gentle stirring. Alkaline-treated skin will be then washed with tap water until pH<7.5 of washed water will be obtained. The alkaline-treated skins will be soaked in 0.05 mol/l acetic acid with a skin to solution ratio of 1:10 (w/v) for 3 h at room temperature (25±1°C). Acid-treated skin will be washed as previously described. The swollen fish skin will be soaked in distilled water with a skin/water ratio of 1:10 (w/v) at 45±1°C for 12 h with continuous stirring to extract the gelatin. The mixture will be then filtered using two layers of cheesecloth. The resultant filtrate will be freeze dried and the dry matter from freeze-dried process was ground and referred to as “gelatin powder”.
Preparation of crude enzyme extract
Viscera of farmed giant catfish were obtained from Charun Farm, Chiang Rai, Thailand. Those samples were packed in the polyethylene bag, kept in ice and transported to the Food Technology Laboratory, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai, Thailand, within 30 min. Pooled viscera were immediately frozen and stored at −20°C until used.
Frozen viscera were thawed using running tap water (26-28°C) until the core temperature reached (−2) ± 2°C. The sample was cut into small pieces and homogenized for 2 min with extraction buffer (10 mM Tris–HCl pH 8.0, containing 10 mM CaCl2) in the ratio of 1:5 (w/v). The mixture was centrifuged at 10,000×g for 10 min at 4°C. The pellet was discarded and the supernatant was collected and referred to as “crude enzyme extract” (CE). Protein concentration and protease activity in CE were measured.
Protease partitioning by ATPS
Effect of crude enzyme extracts on protease partitioning
ATPS were prepared in 15 ml graduated centrifuge tubes by weighing. The ATPS containing different amounts of CE 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70% (w/w) was added into the system consisting of 15% PEG2000-15% sodium citrate that provided the best alkaline protease recovery from the study of Vannabun and Rawdkuen [14, 15]. Distilled water was used to adjust the system to obtain the final weight of 10 g. The mixtures were mixed thoroughly for 15 min using a Vortex mixer before pH measurement. Phase separation was achieved by centrifuging at 4000×g for 10 min at 4°C. The top phase was carefully separated using a Pasteur pipette. Volumes of the separated top and bottom phases were measured and recorded, after that both phases were put aside for the protease assay and total protein determination. Separation parameters; enzyme partition coefficient (KE), volume ratio (VR) purification fold (PF) and protease recovery (%) were also calculated according to Nalinanon et al. . From the protease recovery, the protease obtained from the ATPS fraction that rendered the maximal recovery was chosen for further study.
Effect of pH on the protease partitioning
Based on the protease recovery, the ATPS containing the highest recovery from the first step was chosen for optimization. The original pH of the system was measured and then adjusted to 6.0, 7.0, 8.0 and 9.0, 11.0 by 1 M HCl or 1 M NaOH. ATPS for this step were done and determined as previously described. ATPS were prepared and monitored as previously described.
Effect of NaCl on the protease partitioning
The selected system showed the highest recovery from the previous step was chosen for study the effect of NaCl on protease partitioning. The powdered NaCl was directly dissolved into the systems, to achieve the final concentrations of 1, 3, 5 and 7% (w/w). ATPS for this step were prepared and monitored as previously described.
Repetitive ATPS for protease recovery
In the case of repetitive operation, the top phase from the system of 15% PEG 2000-15% sodium citrate, containing 70% (w/w) CE which showed the highest recovery was used as the starting material for the second ATPS by mixing with additional sodium citrate to obtain the final concentrations of 10, 15, and 20% (w/w). After the complete phase separation, the phases were collected as previously mentioned. The upper phases from the second ATPS were subjected to protein content and protease activity analysis.
All experiments were run in triplicate. The ATPS rendering the most effective protease partitioning was chosen. Phase giving the highest enzyme recovery was chosen for gelatin hydrolysis study.
Characterization of alkaline protease
Proteolytic activity and protein content
Proteolytic activity was determined by using caseinolytic activity assay according to the method of Rawdkuen et al.  with slight modification. A volume of 0.5 ml of the enzyme sample was mixed with 0.5 ml of 1% (w/v) casein in 0.10 M of Tris–HCl (pH 8.0). The reaction was initiated by incubating the mixture at 37°C for 10 min. The reaction was stopped by adding 0.5 ml of 5% (w/v) TCA. After 5 min of centrifugation at 10,000×g, the absorption of the soluble peptides in the supernatant was measured at 280 nm. One caseinolytic activity unit is defined as the amount of enzyme needed to produce an increment of 0.01 absorbance unit per minute at the assayed condition.
Bradford method  was used for determination of protein concentration and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a standard.
The protein pattern of the extracted protease was evaluated using SDS-PAGE according to the method of Laemmli . The protein solutions were mixed at a 1:1 (v/v) ratio with the sample buffer (0.125 M Tris–HCl, pH 6.8, 4% SDS, 20% glycerol). The samples (8 μg and 2 μg for protein and activity staining, respectively) were loaded onto a 4% stacking gel and a 15% separating gel. The samples were subjected to a constant current of 15 mA/gel. After electrophoresis, the gel was stained overnight with a solution of 0.1% (w/v) Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 in 45% (v/v) methanol and 10 % (v/v) acetic acid. The gels were then destained with 50% (v/v) methanol and 7.5% (v/v) acetic acid for 30 min, followed by 5% (v/v) methanol and 7.5% (v/v) acetic acid for 15 min before being washed and dried.
The protein band separated on SDS-PAGE was verified for proteolytic activity by using casein substrate gel electrophoresis according to the method of Garcia-Carreno et al. . The gel was immersed in 50 ml of 2% (w/v) casein in 100 mM of a Tris–HCl buffer at pH 8.0, followed by constant agitation at 4°C for 45 min. The reaction was initiated by incubating the gel at 37°C for 15 min. The treated gel was then stained and de-stained as described above. The development of a clear band on the dark background indicated the caseinolytic activity of the proteases from the viscera of the farmed giant catfish. The gels were fixed and stained with Coomassie Blue R-250. Development of clear zones on blue background indicated proteolytic activity.
Extracted alkaline protease from the ATPS providing the highest recovery (15% PEG2000-15% sodium citrate, pH system 8.5 containing 70% (w/w) CE with 10% additional sodium citrate) and Flavourzyme (initial activity 31.70 units) were used to prepare gelatin hydrolysate. The reaction was started by incubating the gelatin solution (2 mg/ml) with enzymes at different concentrations (0.03, 0.10, 0.21, 0.50, 5.00, 10.00, 15.00, and 20.00 units) at 37°C for 10 min and then terminated by submerging the mixture in boiling water for 3 min. Pattern of proteins generated was determined by SDS-PAGE using 7.5% separating gel and 4% stacking gel as mentioned above.
Financial support from Mae Fah Luang University and the Thailand Research Fund through the Royal Golden Jubilee Ph.D. Program (Grant No. PHD 0113/2554) to Ms. Sunantha Ketnawa are acknowledged.
- Nalinanon S, Benjakul S, Visessanguan W, Kishimura H: Partitioning of protease from stomach of albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) by aqueous two-phase systems. Process Biochem. 2009, 44: 471-476. 10.1016/j.procbio.2008.12.018.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Naganagouda K, Mulimani VH: Aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE: an attractive and economically viable technology for downstream processing of Aspergillus oryzae α-galactosidase). Process Biochem. 2008, 43: 1293-1299. 10.1016/j.procbio.2008.07.016.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Khantaphant S, Benjakul S: Purification and characterization of trypsin from the pyloric caeca of brownstripe red snapper (Lutjanus vitta). Food Chem. 2010, 120: 658-664. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.098.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Marcuschi M, Espósito TS, Machado MFM, Hirata IY, Machado MFM, Silva MV, Carvalho LB, Oliveira V, Bezerra RS: Purification, characterization and substrate specificity of a trypsin from the Amazonian fish tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). Biochem Biophy Res Com. 2010, 396: 667-673. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.04.155.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Klomklao S, Benjakul S, Kishimura H, Chaijan M: 24 kDa Trypsin: a predominant protease purified from the viscera of hybrid catfish (Clarias macrocephalus × Clarias gariepinus). Food Chem. 2011, 129: 739-746. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.05.014.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Klomklao S, Benjakul S, Visessanguan W, Kishimura H, Simpson BK: Trypsins from yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacores) spleen: purification and characterization. Comp Biochem Phys. 2006, 144: 47-56. 10.1016/j.cbpb.2006.01.006.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Freitas-Júnior ACV, Costa HMS, Icimoto MY, Hirata IY, Marcondes M, Carvalho LB, Oliveira V, Bezerra RS: Giant Amazonian fish pirarucu (Arapaima gigas): its viscera as a source of thermostable trypsin. Food Chem. 2012, 133: 1596-1602. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.02.056.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Klomklao S, Benjakul S, Visessanguan W, Simpson BK, Kishimura H: Partitioning and recovery of proteinase from tuna spleen by aqueous two-phase systems. Process Biochem. 2005, 40: 3061-3067. 10.1016/j.procbio.2005.03.009.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Boaglio A, Bassani G, Pico G, Nerli B: Features of the milk whey protein partitioning in polyethyleneglycol-sodium citrate aqueous two-phase systems with the goal of isolating human alpha-1 antitrypsin expressed in bovine milk. J Chromatogr B. 2006, 837: 18-23. 10.1016/j.jchromb.2006.03.049.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Asenjo JA, Andrews BA: Review: aqueous two phase systems for protein separation: a perspective. J Chromatogr A. 2011, 1218: 8826-8835. 10.1016/j.chroma.2011.06.051.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Albertsson PA: Partition of Cell Particles and Macromolecules, 3rded. 1971, New York: WileyGoogle Scholar
- Johansson G: Affinity partitioning of proteins using aqueous two-phase systems. Protein purification: principles, high-resolution methods, and applications. Edited by: Janson JC, Ryden L. 1998, London: Wiley-VCH, Inc, 443-460.Google Scholar
- Department of Fisheries of Thailand, Fisheries statistics of Thailand. http://www.fisheries.go.th/it-stat/yearbook,
- Vannabun A, Rawdkuen S: Aqueous two-phase partitioning of alkaline protease from viscera of farmed giant catfish. Proceedings of the 4th International conference on natural products for health and beauty. 2012, Chiang Mai, Thailand: Chiang Mai UniversityGoogle Scholar
- Rawdkuen S, Vannabun A, Benjakul S: Recovery of proteases from the viscera of farmed giant catfish (Pangasianodon gigas) by three-phase partitioning. Process Biochem. 2012, 47: 2566-2569. 10.1016/j.procbio.2012.09.001.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Thitipramote N, Rawkdkuen S: Histological structure and chemical composition of the farmed giant catfish’s skin. J Micro Soc Thailand. 2011, 4: 89-93.Google Scholar
- Haard NF: A review of proteolytic enzymes from marine organisms and their application in the food industry. J Aqua Food Prod Technol. 1992, 1: 17-35. 10.1300/J030v01n01_05.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Simpson BK: Digestive proteases from marine animals. Seafood Enzymes. Edited by: Haard NF, Simpson BK. 2000, New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, 191-213.Google Scholar
- Joo HS, Park GC, Kim KM, Paik SR, Chang CS: Novel alkaline protease from the polychaeta, Periserrula leucophryna: purification and characterization. Process Biochem. 2001, 36: 893-900. 10.1016/S0032-9592(00)00290-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bezerra RS, Lins EJF, Alencar RB, Paiva PMG, Chaves MEC, Coelho LCBB, Carvalho LB: Alkaline proteinase from intestine of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Process Biochem. 2005, 40: 1829-1834. 10.1016/j.procbio.2004.06.066.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sai-Ut S, Jongjareonrak A, Rawdkuen S: Re-extraction, recovery, and characteristics of skin gelatin from farmed giant catfish. Food Bioprocess Technol. 2010, 5: 1197-1205.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Amid M, Shuhaimi M, Sarker MZI, Manap MYA: Purification of serine protease from mango (Mangifera Indica Cv. Chokanan) peel using an alcohol/salt aqueous two phase system. Food Chem. 2012, 132: 1382-1386. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.11.125.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ng HS, Tan CP, Chen SK, Mokhtar MN, Ariff A, Ling TC: Primary capture of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase derived from Bacillus cereus by aqueous two phase system. Sep Pur Tech. 2011, 81: 318-324. 10.1016/j.seppur.2011.07.039.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Selvakumar P, Ling TC, Walker S, Lyddiatt A: A practical implementation and exploitation of ATPS for intensive processing of biological feedstock: a novel approach for heavily biological feedstock loaded ATPS. Sep Purif Technol. 2010, 75: 323-331. 10.1016/j.seppur.2010.08.022.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Raja S, Murty VR, Thivaharan V, Rajasekar V, Ramesh V: Aqueous two phase systems for the recovery of biomolecules-A review. Science Tech. 2011, 1: 7-16.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Oliveira LA, Sarubbo LA, Porto ALF, Campos-Takaki GM, Tambourgi EB: Partition of trypsin in aqueous two-phase systems of poly(ethylene glycol) and cashew-nut tree gum. Process Biochem. 2002, 38: 693-699. 10.1016/S0032-9592(02)00191-7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Khantaphant S, Benjakul S: Comparative study on the proteases from fish pyloric caeca and the use for production of gelatin hydrolysate with antioxidative activity. Comp Biochem Physic B. 2008, 151: 410-419. 10.1016/j.cbpb.2008.08.011.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kristinsson HG, Rasco BA: Biochemical and functional properties of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) muscle proteins hydrolyzed with various alkaline proteases. J Agri Food Chem. 2000, 48: 657-666. 10.1021/jf990447v.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Thorkelsson G, Kristinsson HG: Bioactive peptides from marine sources. State of art. Report to the NORA fund. Food Res Inn Safe. 2009, 1: 1-20.Google Scholar
- Khantaphant S, Benjakula S, Kishimura H: Antioxidative and ACE inhibitory activities of protein hydrolysates from the muscle of brownstripe red snapper prepared using pyloric caeca and commercial proteases. Process Biochem. 2011, 46: 318-327. 10.1016/j.procbio.2010.09.005.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bradford MM: A rapid and sensitive method for quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem. 1976, 72: 248-254. 10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Laemmli UK: Cleavage of structure proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature. 1970, 277: 680-685.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Garcia-Carreno FC, Dimes CE, Haard NF: Substrate gel electrophoresis for composition and molecular weight of proteinases or proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors. Anal Biochem. 1993, 214: 65-69. 10.1006/abio.1993.1457.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.