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Table 3 Comparison of IL-UA-DLLME with other methods for the determination of pyrethroids in liquid samples

From: One-step ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of pyrethroids in traditional Chinese medicine oral liquid preparations

Sample Analyte Extraction method Detection method Extraction solvent Organic solvent consumption (mL) Sample volume (mL) LOD Linear range Recovery (%) EF Refs.
Fruit juices Tetramethrin, fenpropathrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate, permethrin DLLMEa HPLC–UV Chloroform 1.25 mL of methanol, 0.3 mL of chloroform 5.00 2.0–5.0 μg L−1 2.0–1500 μg L−1 84–94 62–84 [25]
Water Ethofenprox, lambda-cyhalothrin, d-phenothrin, bifenthrin IL-DLLMEb HPLC–UV [C6MIM][PF6] 0.6 mL of methanol 5.00 10.38–15.56 μg L−1 50–2000 μg L−1 88–98 260–319 [26]
Water Allethrin, cypermethrin, prallethrin, tetramethrin, transfluthrin, and imiprothrin UA-DLLMEc HPLC–UV Tetrachloromethane 20 μL of tetrachloromethane, 1.0 mL of acetone 10.00 0.1–0.3 μg L−1 0.6–1520 μg L−1 86–109 767–1033 [27]
Vegetable oils Fenpropathrin, sumithrin, cyhalothrin, permethrin, deltamethrin LLE-DLLMEd GC-FIDe Dimethylformamide 4.5 mL n-hexane, 1 mL DMF, 5.00 0.02–0.17 mg kg−1 0.06–6 mg kg−1 85–109 40–70 [28]
TCM oral liquid Beta-cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, tau-fluvalinate, fenvalerate UA-DLLME HPLC–UV [C8MIM][PF6] 0.8 mL of acetonitrile 5 7–24 μg L−1 0.1–10 mg L−1 80.1–106.4 98–150 This work
  1. aDispersive liquid–liquid microextraction
  2. bIonic liquid dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction
  3. cUltrasound-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction
  4. dLiquid–liquid extraction-dispersive solid-phase extraction
  5. eGas chromatography-flame ionization detector