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Table 1 Other bioactivities of Citrus fruits reviewed from studies in latest 6 years

From: Citrus fruits as a treasure trove of active natural metabolites that potentially provide benefits for human health

Bioactivities Components Sources Subjects Results Ref.
Hepatoprotective effects Citromitin, tangeretin, nobiletin C. depressa juice d-Galactosamine-treated rats Suppression on d-galactosamine-induced liver injury [37]
Limonin Citrus fruits d-Galactosamine-treated rats Attenuation of the markers of hepatic damage and hepatic inflammation
Suppression on oxidative stress and expression of TLR-4 but not TLR-2
Anti-microbial effects Essential oils Three C. species (orange, lemon, madarin) from Spain Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica ser. Enteritidis Inhibition of spoiling and pathogenic microorganisms [110]
Naringenin Citrus fruits Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 Attenuation of Salmonella Typhimurium virulence and cell motility [111]
Naringenin, kaempferol, quercetin and apigenin Citrus fruits Escherichia coli O157:H7 and V. harveyi Affection on antagonists of cell–cell signalling
Suppression the biofilm formation
Alteration the expression of genes encoding type three secretion system in V. harveyi ( naringenin)
Anti-allergic effects Hesperetin, naringenin Citrus fruits Rat basophil leukemia RBL-2H3 cells Inhibition of degranulation by suppression of pathway signals
Reduction the symptoms of allergy by inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt
Anti-melanogenesis effects Extract Unripe fruit of C. hassaku Cultured murine B16 melanoma cells, the dorsal skin of brownish guinea pigs Inhibition of melanogenesis without any effects on cell proliferation in cultured murine B16 melanoma cells after glucosamine exposure
Prevention effects in vivo against UVB-induced pigmentation
Anti-obesity anti-hyperglycemic effects Limonoid, nomilin Citrus fruits Mice fed a high-fat diet Mediation through the activation of TGR5 [115]
Anti-obesity effects Extract Peels of immature C. sunki High-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice and mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes Elevation of β-oxidation and lipolysis in adipose tissue [116]
Polymethoxyflavones, coumarin derivatives Peels of Citrus fruits Mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells Monitoring the prevention of accumulation of lipid droplets [46]
Inhibitory effects on pulmonary fibrosis Alkaline C. reticulata Pulmonary fibrosis rats Inhibition of the proliferation of MRC-5
Prevention effect on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats
Anti-diabetic effects Extract Yuja (C. junos Tanaka) pulp Mice fed a high fat diet Reduction the weight gain and the rise in liver fat content, serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, and insulin resistance
Reduction the secretion of adipocytokines such as leptin and resistin
Increase on phosphorylation of AMPK in muscle tissues
Wound healing effects Extract C. tamurana Fibroblasts cells (TIG-119) Inhibition proliferation of TIG-119 cells at higher concentration (>1.0 mg/mL)
Exhibition linear and time-dependent cell proliferation at lower concentrations (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 mg/mL)
Acceleration the migration of cells towards the wounded region
Antianxiety-like effects Chimpi Dried Citrus peels ICR male mice Possession a significant anxiolytic-like effect similar to that of fluoxetine [120]
  1. The table reviewed latest reported studies concerning other bioactivities of Citrus fruits, including hepatoprotective effects, anti-microbial effects, anti-allergic effects, anti-melanogenesis effects, anti-obesity effects, anti-diabetic effects, etc