- Research article
- Open Access
Synthesis, crystal structures and docking studies of 2,7-diphenyl-1,4-diazepan-5-one derivatives
- Maheshwaran Velusamy†1,
- Sethuvasan Sreenivasan†2,
- Ravichandran Kandasamy3,
- Ponnuswamy Subbu2,
- Sugumar Paramasivam†1 and
- Ponnuswamy Mondikalipudur Nanjappagounder1Email author
© Velusamy et al.; licensee Springer. 2015
- Received: 22 August 2014
- Accepted: 17 March 2015
- Published: 8 April 2015
1,4-Diazepine derivatives are the seven membered, nitrogen containing heterocyclic ring systems possessing a wide range of therapeutic applications. 1,4-Diazepines attracted the attention of chemists and druggists due to their biological and medicinal properties, such as antimicrobial, anti-HIV and anticancer activities. Herein, we report the preparation, crystal structure determined by X-ray crystallographic methods and docking of the molecules with the potential target protein NS5B RNA polymerase.
The crystal structures and conformational studies of 1,4-diazepine [t-3, t-6-dimethyl-r-2,c-7-diphenyl-1,4-diazepan-5-one(DIAZ1)] and its nitroso derivative [t-3, t-6-dimethyl-1-nitroso-r-2,c-7-diphenyl-1,4-diazepan-5-one(DIAZ2)] are reported. The analyses of the molecules reveal that the seven membered diazepine ring systems adopt chair and boat conformations in compounds DIAZ1 & DIAZ2, respectively. In DIAZ2, the oxygen O2A is disordered over two positions with the refined occupancies of 0.792(7): 0.208(7) in the nitroso group. In both DIAZ1 & DIAZ2, the symmetry related molecules form a hetero/homo-dimer through N-H…O hydrogen bonds.
In this study, the crystal structures of two new 1,4-diazepines, namely t-3, t-6-dimethyl-r-2,c-7-diphenyl-1,4-diazepan-5-one and t-3, t-6-dimethyl-1-nitroso-r-2,c-7-diphenyl-1,4-diazepan-5-one were synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallographic methods. The docking studies show that the compounds inhibit at the active site of the target protein and can be utilized as potential drug molecules. In both the compounds, N-H…O hydrogen bonds lead to dimer formation. In DIAZ2, additionally a couple of C-H…O interactions are noted between the molecules.
- Hepatitis C virus (HCV)
- NS5B RNA polymerase
1,4-Diazepine derivatives are the seven membered, nitrogen containing heterocyclic ring systems possessing a wide range of therapeutic applications. These derivatives are predominantly used in the inhibition of signals in the central nervous system which is useful for the synthesis of psychoactive drugs . 1,4-Diazepines are widely used in the field of peptidomimetics as potential mimetic and molecular scaffolds [2,3]. Analogs of 1,4-diazepine nucleoside with the protected sugar moiety have been made as possible agents against HIV-1 and HIV-2 viruses . 1,4-Diazepines attracted the attention of chemists and druggists for their biological and medicinal activities, such as antimicrobial , anti-HIV , herbicidal , psychotropic  and anticancer  activities. Also 1,4-diazepines act as antagonists of platelet activation factor (PAF) . 1, 4-Diazepines play prominent roles in the field of medicinal chemistry because it is the core moiety used for the synthesis of various drug molecules like, dibenzepine, clozapine, brotizolam and zometapine. In view of above said importance, 1,4-diazepine derivatives were synthesized and the crystal structures were determined. The docking studies of the above derived molecules were carried out with the targeted protein NS5B RNA polymerase.
Noller and Baliah , developed a novel method which involves the condensation of diethyl ketone with aromatic aldehyde along with ammonium acetate in the presence of ethanol medium leading to the formation of the compound t-3, t-5-dimethyl-r-2,c-6-diphenylpiperidin-4-one (1).
Preparation of DIAZ1
To a cooled t-3, t-5-dimethyl-r-2,c-6-diphenylpiperidin-4-one (1) [1.40 g, 5 mmol] solution in ether (20–30 ml) in an Erlenmeyer flask, was added conc.HCl until precipitation of the white solid was completed (5–10 min). The solid was then collected, washed with ether and dried. Recrystallization of the solid mass from ethanol afforded colorless crystals of (2) (Yield: 1.48 g, 93.67%), mp 226–228°C .
Preparation of DIAZ2
C19 H22 N2 O
C19 H21 N3 O2
Crystal system, space group
Unit cell dimensions
a = 11.1980(5)Å α = 93.151(5)°
a = 9.1789(6)Å α = 89.255(4)°
b = 12.2910(8)Å β = 97.650(3)°
b = 12.7776(9)Å β = 86.758(3)°
c = 13.3610(4)Å γ = 92.660(4)°
c = 16.0615(10)Å γ = 70.507(4)°
Z, Calculated density
4, 1.076 Mg/m3
4, 1.212 Mg/m3
0.25 × 0.26 × 0.30 mm
0.23 × 0.25 × 0.27 mm
Theta range for data collection
1.66 to 28.48°
1.27 to 26.82°
−15 < =h < =14, −16 < =k < =16,-16 < =l < =17
−11 < =h < =11, −15 < =k < =16, −20 < =l < =19
30381/8888 [Rint = 0.0407]
24353/7277 [Rint = 0.0344]
Completeness to theta
Full-matrix least-squares on F2
Full-matrix least-squares on F2
Goodness-of-fit on F2
Final R indices [I > 2σ (I)]
R1 = 0.0595, wR2 = 0.1687
R1 = 0.0570, wR2 = 0.1479
R indices (all data)
R1 = 0.1369, wR2 = 0.1912
R1 = 0.1163, wR2 = 0.1919
Largest diff. peak and hole
0.377 and −0.367 e.Å−3
0.363 and −0.194 e.Å−3
Asymmetry parameters and torsion angles for diazepine ring
Least-squares plane calculation for DIAZ1 & DIAZ2
In DIAZ1 & DIAZ2, the planar phenyl rings attached at C2 & C7 and the keto oxygen at C5 of the diazepine ring occupy equatorial orientation. The sum of the bond angles around the hetero nitrogen atoms N [N1A & N1B and N4A & N4B] in both DIAZ1 & DIAZ2 show that the atoms are in sp 2 hybridized state.
Hydrogen-bond geometry (Å, °)
Single crystals of the compounds DIAZ1 and DIAZ2 were mounted on a Bruker Kappa APEXII area-detector diffractometer equipped with MoKα (0.71073 Å) radiation . X-ray intensity data were collected for both the compounds at room temperature (293 K). The data reduction and the absorption corrections were carried out using SAINT  and SADABS  programs. The structures were solved by direct methods using the program SHELXS97 . All the non-hydrogen atoms were refined anisotropically by full-matrix least-squares procedure on F2 taking all the unique reflections using SHELXL97 . The hydrogen atoms attached with carbon atoms were placed in their calculated positions and included in the isotropic refinement using the riding model with C–H = 0.93 Å (−CH) or 0.97 Å (−CH2) Å or 0.96 Å (−CH3) Å with Uiso (H) = 1.2Ueq (parent C atom). In DIAZ1, molecules of solvent were severely disordered, but suitable disorder models could not be found. In order to obtain a better quality refinement, the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON was used to remove the contribution from the disordered solvent . The least-squares planes, geometrical and puckering parameters of both the compounds were calculated using PLATON software package [19-21].
Molecular docking studies of diazepine derivatives
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive sense single stranded RNA virus belonging to the flaviviridae family of enveloped viruses. The hepatitis C viral particle consists of a core of genetic material (RNA), surrounded by a protective shell of protein, and further encased in a lipid (fatty) envelope of cellular material. This protein is processed by host and viral proteases into four structural (Core, E1, E2 and p7) and six nonstructural proteins (NS2, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A and NS5B) . The objective of the study is to demonstrate that 1,4-diazepines (DAP) bind to the NS5B enzyme and to evaluate whether these DAP molecules can be used as potential drugs for hepatitis C disease.
The diazepine derivatives derived in the present study were analyzed for the binding affinity with NS5B polymerase. The co-crystallization of various dibenzodiazepine with NS5B has already been carried out wherein carbonyl O of the inhibitor forms an intermolecular hydrogen bond interacting with residue TYR 448.
Target protein and ligand structure preparation
The X-ray crystal structure of NS5B complex (PDB ID: 3CSO) was obtained from the RCSB Protein Data Bank (PDB). Prior to optimizing the protein, water molecules were removed from the crystal structure and partial atomic charges were also assigned according to the force field. Minimization of protein was performed until the average root mean square (rms) deviation of the non-hydrogen atoms reached 0.3 Å using OPLS-2005 force field to remove the steric hindrance under Protein Preparation Wizard of Schrödinger Suite 2011 . The above said force field was used in minimizing the energy of the ligands. The pictorial representation is done using the program LIGPLOT . Ligplot generates schematic diagrams of protein-ligand interactions from the 3D coordinates in a PDB file.
Score, energy and interactions of DIAZ1 &DIAZ2 with NS5B RNA Polymerase(PDB ID: 3CSO)
Glide energy (kcal/mol)
Type of interaction
Bond length (Å)
In this study, two new crystal structures of 1,4-diazepine and its nitroso derivative(DIAZ1 & DIAZ2) were synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallographic methods. Both 1,4-diazepine derivatives are crystallized in triclinic space group wherein the diazepine rings take up chair and boat conformations. In both the compounds, N-H…O hydrogen bonds lead to dimer formation. The molecules DIAZ1 and DIAZ2 are docked with the targeted protein NS5B RNA Polymerase and the results are compared with the cocrystallized ligand dibenzodiazepine.
SS thanks UGC, New Delhi for the award of Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship (RGNF). PS thanks the UGC, New Delhi for financial support in the form of a Research Fellowship in Science for Meritorious Students.
Crystallographic data (CIF and FCF) for the structures of compounds DIAZ1 and DIAZ2 reported in this paper have been deposited with the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre as supplementary publication numbers, CCDC 1020728 and CCDC 1020634, respectively. Copies of the data can be obtained free of charge, on application to CCDC, 12 Union Road, Cambridge CB2 1 EZ, UK. (fax: +44-(0)1223-336033 or email: firstname.lastname@example.org). Structural information files related to DIAZ1 is given as Additional file 1 and structural information files related to DIAZ2 is given as Additional file 2.
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