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Table 1 Centre composite response surface experimental design [actual and coded value (in bracket)] of the optimization of ferulic acid and NFPC from the black liquor of (a) pineapple peel (PP) and (b) pineapple crown leaves (PCL)

From: Bioconversion of ferulic acid attained from pineapple peels and pineapple crown leaves into vanillic acid and vanillin by Aspergillus niger I-1472

(a) Pineapple peel (PP)a
Solid content (%)Time (min)Ferulic acid yield (mg L−1)Ferulic acid recovery (mg g−1 PP)NFPC yield (mg GAE mL−1)NFPC recovery (mg GAE g−1 PP)
12.00 (0.000)105.00 (0.000)486.804.063.9132.59
12.00 (0.000)180.00 (1.414)578.064.824.2034.97
6.34 (− 1.000)158.03 (1.000)312.804.932.7943.93
17.66 (1.000)158.03 (1.000)401.052.274.1523.51
12.00 (0.000)105.00 (0.000)535.364.463.4828.96
4.00 (− 1.414)105.00 (0.000)189.964.751.7543.73
20.00 (1.414)105.00 (0.000)639.083.204.0620.31
12.00 (0.000)105.00 (0.000)483.684.033.5729.72
12.00 (0.000)105.00 (0.000)546.184.553.6029.97
17.66 (1.000)51.97 (− 1.000)634.653.604.5025.46
6.34 (− 1.000)51.97 (− 1.000)36.990.582.2835.88
12.00 (0.000)30.00 (− 1.414)190.521.593.6029.97
12.00 (0.000)105.00 (0.000)527.934.403.2527.09
(b) Pineapple crown leaves (PCL)b
Solid content (%)Time (min)Ferulic acid yield (mg L−1)Ferulic acid recovery (mg g−1 PCL)NFPC yield (mg GAE mL−1)NFPC recovery (mg GAE g−1 PCL)
6.00 (0.000)105.00 (0.000)184.553.082.9649.30
6.00 (0.000)180.00 (1.414)165.282.752.8347.24
6.00 (0.000)105.00 (0.000)175.002.923.2854.69
8.83 (1.000)158.03 (1.000)249.892.833.7942.87
2.00 (− 1.414)105.00 (0.000)9.480.471.1557.57
6.00 (0.000)105.00 (0.000)173.362.893.0851.36
6.00 (0.000)105.00 (0.000)160.542.682.9148.51
6.00 (0.000)105.00 (0.000)165.002.752.9849.62
6.00 (0.000)30.00 (− 1.414)201.263.352.8647.72
8.83 (1.000)51.97 (− 1.000)263.852.993.7942.87
3.17 (− 1.000)51.97 (− 1.000)28.100.891.6150.72
3.17 (− 1.000)158.03 (1.000)141.404.461.7856.12
10.00 (1.414)105.00 (0.000)311.673.123.7337.28
  1. amg GAE mL−1 and mg GAE g−1 PP means milligram of gallic acid equivalent per milliliter of extract and milligram of gallic acid equivalent per gram of pineapple peel respectively
  2. bmg GAE mL−1 and mg GAE g−1 PP means milligram of gallic acid equivalent per milliliter of extract and milligram of gallic acid equivalent per gram of pineapple crown leaves respectively