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Table 1 Commonly detected PPCPs in different environmental matrices and their occurrence levels around the world

From: Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in water and wastewater: a review of treatment processes and use of photocatalyst immobilized on functionalized carbon in AOP degradation

PPCPs Concentration (µg/L) Country Source References
Sulfamethoxazole 0.33–0.61 Beijing River and sewage water [25]
2.00 Australia Surface water [26]
3.00 Australia Wastewater treatment plant influent [26]
0.20 Australia Wastewater treatment plant effluent [26]
34.50 Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa Wastewater treatment plant influent [24]
3.68 Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa Surface water [22]
0.049 Scaynes Hill, UK Wastewater treatment plant influent [27]
0.023 Scaynes Hill, UK Wastewater treatment plant effluent [27]
Nalidixic acid 1.73–30.84 Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa Surface water [22]
29.9 Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa WWTW influent [28]
25.2 Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa WWTW effluent [28]
0.20 Australia WWTW influent [26]
0.45 Australia WWTW effluent [26]
0.75 Australia Hospital effluent; Wastewater treatment plant [26]
Aspirin 0.664 South Wales, UK Cilfynydd wastewater treatment influent [29]
0.027 South Wales, UK Cilfynydd wastewater treatment effluent [29]
2.49 South Wales, UK Coslech Wastewater treatment Influent [29]
0.02 South Wales, UK Coslech Wastewater treatment effluent [29]
2.566 Catalonia, Spain Wastewater Influent [30]
0.034 Catalonia, Spain Wastewater effluent [30]
0.012 Catalonia, Spain Surface Water [30]
874 Canada Influent sewage treatment plants [31]
59.6 Canada Effluent sewage treatment plants [31]
118.00 Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa Wastewater treatment plant influent [28]
44.20 South Africa Wastewater treatment plant effluent [28]
Naproxen 0.838 South Wales, UK Cilfynydd wastewater treatment influent [29]
0.37 South Wales, UK Cilfynydd wastewater treatment effluent [29]
1.173 South Wales, UK Coslech wastewater treatment influent [29]
0.17 South Wales, UK Coslech wastewater treatment effluent [29]
5.938 Korea WWTP influent [32]
0.120 Korea WWTP effluent [32]
52.30–55.00 Gauteng, South Africa WWTP influent [23]
13.50–20.40 Gauteng, South Africa WWTP effluent [23]
Ibuprofen 1.68 South Wales, UK Cilfynydd wastewater treatment influent [29]
0.26 South Wales, UK Cilfynydd wastewater treatment effluent [29]
2.29 South Wales, UK Coslech wastewater treatment influent [29]
0.14 South Wales, UK Coslech wastewater treatment effluent [29]
5–8 Canada Wastewater effluent [33]
62.82 Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa WWTW influent [24]
58.71 Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa WWTW effluent [24]
9.494 Korea WWTP influent [32]
0.015 Korea WWTP effluent [32]
Acetaminophen 211.38 South Wales, UK Cilfynydd wastewater treatment influent [29]
11.73 South Wales, UK Cilfynydd wastewater treatment effluent [29]
178.12 South Wales, UK Coslech wastewater treatment influent [29]
0.35 South Wales, UK Coslech wastewater treatment effluent [29]
11.3 France WWTP influents [34]
5.76 Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa WWTW influent [24]
74.552 Korea WWTP influent [32]
0.023 Korea WWTP effluent [32]
Carbamazepine 1.69 South Wales, UK Cilfynydd wastewater treatment influent [29]
2.49 South Wales, UK Cilfynydd wastewater treatment effluent [29]
0.95 South Wales, UK Coslech wastewater treatment influent [29]
0.83 South Wales, UK Coslech wastewater treatment effluent [29]
1.9 Canada Wastewater treatment influent [31]
2.3 Canada Wastewater treatment influent [31]
0.42 Tainan, Taiwan WWTP effluent [35]
Diclofenac 22.3 Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa Wastewater treatment plant influent [28]
12.4 Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa Wastewater treatment plant effluent [28]
15.3–19.4 Germany Wastewater treatment plant [19]
0.21–0.49 France WWTP effluents [34]
0.397 Scaynes Hill, UK Wastewater treatment plant influent [27]
0.119 Scaynes Hill, UK Wastewater treatment plant effluent [27]
0.251 Sapporo, Japan Municipal wastewater treatment plant influent [36]
0.145 Sapporo, Japan Municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent [36]
Tetracyclines 0.10 Australia WWTW influent [26]
0.02 Australia WWTW effluent [26]
0.6–5.7 Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa Surface water [22]
0.003–0.008 Tianjin China Municipal wastewaters influents [37]
Bisphenol A 1.52 Tianjin China Municipal wastewaters influents [37]
0.190–1.0789 Harbin city, China Wastewater influents [38]
0.0614–0.1755 Harbin city, China Wastewater effluent [38]
0.028 Pretoria and Cape Town, South Africa Drinking water [39]
0.002 Germany Drinking water [40]
0.047 Germany Sewage Treatment effluents [40]
0.014 Germany River Water [40]
Triclosan 78.40–127.70 Gauteng, South Africa WWTP influent [23]
Benzophenone 1.5–8.58 Nagpur city, India Sewage treatment plant [41]
10.70–22.90 Gauteng, South Africa WWTP effluent [23]
Estrone 0013–0.351 Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa WWTW influent [42]
0.078–0.158 Tianjin China Municipal wastewaters influents [37]
0.003–0.078 Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa WWTW effluent [42]
0.0102–0.0349 Harbin city, China Wastewater influents [38]
0.0083–0.014 Harbin city, China Wastewater effluents [38]
17-β-Estradiol 0.02–0.199 Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa WWTW influent [42]
0.004–0.107 Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa WWTW effluent [42]
0.011–0.054 Tianjin China Municipal wastewaters influents [37]
0.0466–0.093 Harbin city, China Wastewater influents [38]
0.0087–0.0324 Harbin city, China Wastewater effluents [38]
0.0041 California, USA Municipal wastewater effluent [43]
Estriol 0.003–0.009 Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa WWTW influent [42]
0.042–0.162 Tianjin China Municipal wastewaters influents [37]
Progesterone 0.163–0.904 Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa WWTW influent [42]
0.025 Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa WWTW effluent [42]
Testosterone 0.119–0.635 Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa WWTW influent [42]
0.026 Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa WWTW influent [42]