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Table 1 A comparative analysis of methods for Cannabis determination

From: A review of bioanalytical techniques for evaluation of cannabis (Marijuana, weed, Hashish) in human hair

Drugs Amount of hair Decontamination Extraction protocol Instrument Linear range References
THC 50 DCM LLE (MeOH) UHPLC–MS/MS 6–27 [53]
THC 50 DCM LLE (n-hexane/ethyl acetate) (90:10, v/v) UHPLC–MS/MS 0.02–5.4 [33]
THC 50 DCM Ball mill LC–MS/MS 30 [28]
THC 50 DCM Digestion(ACN) LC–MS/MS 0.2–50 [71]
LLE (n-hexane/ethyl acetate, SPE (Strata-X)
THC, THC-COOH 20 MeOH Ethyl acetate LC–MS/MS 1 [27]
THC 20 Nil ACN/MeOH/20 mM ammonium formate buffer pH 3(10:10:80, v:v:v) LC–MS/MS 2–82 [82]
THC-COOH, THC 50 Water, acetone MeOH LC–MS/MS 2.5–20 [83]
THC-COOH, THC 50
20
Petroleum ether MeOH
MeOH
LC-MS/MS
LC-TOF
2.5–20
5–75
[83]
[54]
THC-COOH, THC Cannabinoids 50
20
Shampoo, water, acetone MeOH
MeOH
LC-MS/MS
LC-TOF
2.5–20
5–75
[83]
[54]
THC 20 Water, acetone MeOH/ACN/water/2 mM ammonium formate (25:25:50, v/v/v) LC-TOF 3–15 [84]
THC 50 DCM Enzymatic digestion, LLE (pentane) GC–MS 15–20 [85]
THC 10 Water, acetone Digestion (1 M NaOH), Derivitisation MSTFA GC–MS 10–120 [52]
THC 10–20 Water, acetone Digestion with 1 M NaOH Derivatization with BSTFA + 1% TMCS GC–MS 15–30 [48]
THC 10 Petroleum ether Digestion with 1 M NaOH GC–MS 70 [86]
THC-THCA-A 30–50 Water, acetone, petroleum ether Digestion with 1 N NaOH LLE with n-hexane/ethyl acetate (9:1, v/v) derivatization with MSTFA GC–MS 20–50 [47]
THC 10 Petroleum ether, water, ACN Digestion with 1 M NaOH GC–MS 7–31 [50]
THC-COOH 25 Isopropyl alcohol LLE with n-hexane/ethyl acetate (9:1, v/v) Derivatization with PFPA/PFPOH GC-NCI-MS 0.02 [46]
THC-COOH, THC 20–50 Nil Digestion with 1 M NaOH LLE with n-hexane/ethyl acetate (9:1, v/v) GC-NCI-MS 0.01 [87]
THC-COOH 20 DCM SPE (Bond Elut Certify) Derivatization with TFAA + HFIP 2D GC–NCI–MS 0.05 [49]
THC Single hair DCM Nil Nil Nil [88]
THC 20 Shampoo, deionized water, acetone Methanol methanol/water(1:1, v:v) LC–TOF 0.0125 [54]
THC 50 Water, petrol ether, methanol Methanol, SPE, derivatization MTBSTFA GC–MS 0.1-LLOQ [89]
THC 50 Dichloromethane Methanol, hexane/ethyl acetate (90:10, v:v) derivatization HFBA/ethyl acetate GC–MS Nil [69]
THC   Acetone, petroleum ether Methanol, HS SPE HPLC–ED 300 [89]
THC-COOH 15 Nil Methanol, SPE Narc-1 SP cartridge Pentafluoropropanol/PFPA GC–MS/MS 0.1 LLOQ [70]
THC 50 Dichloromethane Acetonitrile, LLE (hexane:ethyl acetate (55:45, v:v)) SPE: Strata-X cartridge LC–MS/MS 0.05 [71]
THC 10 Nil Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays Immunoassay test 100 [90]
THC-COOH 30 Water, acetone, methanol, dichloromethane, phosphate buffer 0.1 M NaOH, SPE (Waters Milford) LC/SACI-ESIMS/MS–MS Nil [24]
THC-COOH 20 Methanol NaOH, LLE (n-hexane:ethyl acetate 9:1, v:v) PFPA/PFPOH GC-NCI-MS 0.025 ng/mg [91]
THC,THC-COOH 20 Methanol NaOH, LLE (n-hexane:ethyl acetate 9:1, v:v) PFPA/PFPOH GC-NCI-MS THC: 2.5 ng/mg THCCOOH: 0.025 ng/mg [92]
THC-COOH   Methanol NaOH, LLE (n-hexane:ethyl acetate 9:1, v:v) PFPA/PFPOH GC-NCI-MS   [44]
THC, THC-COOH 30–50 Water, petrol, ether, acetone NaOH, LLE (n-hexane:ethyl acetate 9:1, v:v) MSTFA GC–MS 0.02 ng/mg [47]
THC 10 Petroleum ether, deionized water, dichloromethane NaOH, SPME (PDMS fiber) GC–MS/MS 0.031 ng/mg [93]
THC 10 Petroleum ether, deionized water, dichloromethane NaOH, HF–LPME GC–MS/MS 0.015 ng/mg [50]
THC 10 Water, acetone NaOH, NaCl, SFME, deriv. MSTFA GC–MS 0.012 ng/mg [52]
THC-COOH 25 Isopropyl alcohol NaOH, LLE (n-hexane:ethyl acetate, 9:1, v:v) PFPOH/PFPA GC–MS/MS 0.02 ng/mg [46]
THC 15 Deionized water, acetone NaOH, SPME GC–MS 0.012 ng/mg [48]
THC 50 Dichloromethane NaOH, LLE (n-hexane) GC/MS 0.025 ng/mg [42]
THC 50 Isopropyl alcohol NaOH, LLE (n-hexane–ethyl acetate, 75:25 v:v) GC–MS 0.006 ng/mg [44]
THC-COOH 25 Isopropyl alcohol NaOH, LLE (n-hexane–ethyl acetate 9:1 v:v) PFPOH/PFPA GC–MS/MS 0.015 ng/mg [45]
THC 10 Deionised water, petroleum ether, dichloromethane NaOH, SPME, MSTFA GC–MS 0.05 ng/mg [94]
THC   Deionised water, petroleum ether, dichloromethane NaOH, HS-SPDE, MSTFA GC–MS 0.14 ng/mg [95]
THC   Dichlorometane NaOH GC–MS 0.1 ng/mg [73]
THC-COOH 20 Dichlorometane NaOH, SPE(n-hexane–ethyl acetate, 75:25 v:v) GC–MS 0.3 [72]
THC-COOH   Nil NaOH, hexane/ethyl acetate GC–MS 0.3 [96]
THC, THC-COOH   KH2PO4 1 M, water, methanol Hexane/ethyl acetate, TMSI/HFIP/PFPA GC–MS/MS 0.1–1 [97]
THC-COOH 50 Nil NaOH, LLE (n-hexane–ethyl acetate 9:1 v:v) BSTFA GC–MS/MS Nil [98]
THC-COOH 20 Dichloromethane NaOH, SPE (n-hexane–ethyl acetate, 75:25 v:v) TFAA/HFIP GC–MS/MS 0.05 LLOQ [49]
THC-COOH 20 Methanol NaOH, LLE (n-hexane–ethyl acetate 9:1 v:v) PFPOH/PFPA GC–MS 0.025 ng/mg [92]
THC-COOH 20 Dichloromethane NaOH, SPE (n-hexane–ethyl acetate, 75:25 v:v) TFAA/HFIP GC–MS Nil [72]
THC-COOH 50 Dichloromethane NaOH, LLE (n-heptane-ethyl acetate 9:1 v:v) PFPOH/PFPA GC–MS/MS 0.05 ng/mg [99]
THC 50 DCM MeOH UHPLC–ESI–MS/MS (QqQ) 6–27 [53]
THC 50 DCM LLE with n-hexane and ethyl acetate SPE LC–ESI–MS/MS (QqQ) 0.2–50 [71]
THC, THC-COOH 20 Washing sonication MeOH LLE ethyl acetate LC–ESI–MS/MS (QqQ) 1 [42]
THC, THC-COOH 50 Water acetone petroleum ether MeoH LC–ESI–MS/MS (QTrap) LOQ 2.5–20 [83]
THC 50 DCM LLE pentane GC-EI/MS 15–20 [85]
THC 15–30 Water acetone HS-SPME GC-EI/MS 10–20 [52]
THC 10 Petroleum ether HS-SPME GC-EI/MS 70 [86]
THC 10 DCM water petroleum ether HS-SPME GC-EI/MS/MS (IT) 7–31 [50]
THC-COOH 25 Isopropyl alcohol LLE n-hexane/ethyl acetate GC–NCI–MS/MS (QqQ) 0.02 [46]
THC THC-COOH 20-50 NaoH LLE n-hexane/ethyl acetate GC–NCI–MS/MS (QqQ) 0.01 [87]
Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol   DMC LLE n-hexane/ethyl acetate DART-MS
LC/MS/MS
Nil [88]
THCA-A, THC   Water acetone, petroleum ether methanol LC–MS/MS MRM mode 2.5 pg/mg
20 pg/mg for THC
[51]
THCA-A, THC   Water acetone , petroleum ether alkaline hydrolysis, followed by LLE GC–MS monitoring (SIM) mode analysis LOD (THCA A) 0.05 ng/mg
LOD (THC) 0.02 ng/mg
[47]
THCA-A and THC   Water acetone, petroleum ether 2 mL MeOH (LC–MS/MS) n 1–2.5 pg/mg THCA-A 5–10 pg/mg for THC [51]
THC-COOH
THC THCA-A
1–2 mm Water acetone MeOH LC–MS/MS
GC–MS
HS–SPME–GC–MS
1.6–36
0.71–3.27
0–2.75
[51]
THCCOOH THC THC-OH 10 mg Chloroform/isopropanol MeOH solid phase extraction GC–MS/MS 0.05 ng/mL, 0.004 ng/mL [100]
THC-COOHTHC and THC 200-mg Methanol in an ultrasonic bath LLE ethyl acetate NaOH vertex LC–MS/MS s 0.1 ng/mL [27]
THC-COOH 25 mg Methyl alcohol Amiodarone VMA-T M3 reagent UHPLC–MS/MS 0.09 pg/mg [101]
Δ-9-THC, cannabidiol cannabinol 25 mg Methyl alcohol
Diethyl ether
VMA-T M3 reagent UHPLC–MS/MS 0.01 to 0.1 ng [101]
THC 60 mg Methanol SDS wash LLE n-hexane/ethyl acetate UPLC SEM 0.02 [45]
THC CBN CBD 0.5 g Mechanical stirring
DMC
Ultrapure water
LLE HPLC HPLC
LC/MS/MS
Nil [102]
THCCOOH 20 mg) Methanol 1 M NaOH acetic acid n-hexane:ethyl acetate LLE LC/MS/MS LOQ (2 pg/20 mg hair) [103]
THC, CBN, CBD   2.0 M sodium hydroxide Liquid–liquid extraction with hexane/ethyl acetate HPLC–MS/MS 0.25, 0.21, and 0.22 ng g [76]
Synthetic cannabinoids 100 mg 0.5 M sodium hydroxide Liquid–liquid extraction with hexane/ethyl acetate 1260 HPLC-Q-TOF 10 [104]
THCCOOH THC 20 mg 1 M sodium hydroxide Liquid–liquid extraction with hexane/ethyl acetate GC/MS/MS-NCI Nil [105]
THC, CBD, CBN 50–100 mg Water, petrol ether, methanol SPE GC–MS 0.1 pg/mg [70]
THC, CBD, CBN 20 mg Shampoo, deionized water, acetone, air-dried overnight 1 mL methanol/water (1:1 v1:v1) filtered 0.45 PTFE syringe filter LC–TOFMS Nil [54]
THC, CBD, CBN 50 mg Dichloromethane LLE GC–MS Nil [69]
THC, CBD, CBN   Acetone, petrol ether Ultra sonication HPLC–ED 300 (ng/mg) [89]
THC and THC-COOH 20 mg Washed in methanol for 30 s Acidified methanol (2 mL) for 18 h at 45 °C LC–MS/MS LoQ of 75 pg/mg [106]
11-Nor-9-carboxy-THC   Methanol/water wash follow NaOH digest at 75 °C Hexane/ethyl acetate liquid extraction HPLC
SCIEX 6500 + QTRAP system
0.2 pg/mg [107]
THC], THC-OH, THC-COOH segmented in 1 cm Methanol chloroform/isopropanol Ultra sonication SPE GC–MS/MS 0.05 ng/mL [108]
THC, CBD, CBN   Sodium hydroxide solution Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) GC–MS/MS 0.01 ng/mg [109]
THC 20 mg methanol Acidified methanol 18 h at 45 C LC–MS/MS. 75 pg/mg [106]
THC, CBN   Water, acetone, NaOH Solid-phase extraction GC–MS/MS   [110]
THC-COOH 10 mg 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate, water, and methanol Micro pulverized extraction (MPE) (LC/MS/MS 0.2 pg/mg [55]
Cannabis 30 mg Tween 80, Acetone Methanolic incubation
Sonication
LC-HRMS 2 to 30 pg/mg [111]
Cannabis   Methanol 6-h ultrasonic-assisted methanolic extraction GC–MS/MS   [112]
Synthetic cannabinoids   Samples were fortified by soaking Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE)
SPE
HPLC-HRMS 9 to 40 pg/mg [113]
THC
CBN
CBD
3 − 6 cm
100 mg
n-hexane Acetone LLE n-hexane/ethyl acetate GC–MS SIM 0.01
0.06
0.03
[109]
D9-THC 50 mg 0.1 N HCl NaOH 2 M Liquid–liquid extraction GC–MS
ELISA
  [114]
THC, CBN, CBD 5 cm Water methanol MALDI-MS/MS Quadrupole LC–MS/MS   [115]