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Table 1 Current generation reports of graphene-based biosensors for PC biomarker detection

From: Graphene-based biosensors for the detection of prostate cancer protein biomarkers: a review

Technique Receptor system Target proteins LOD Detection ranges References
ECHEM rGO-MWCNT/AuNPs PSA 1.0 pg/mL (0.005–20) ng/mL for DPV, (0.005-100) ng/mL for EIS [132]
ECHEM rGO/Ag@BSA HCG, PSA, CEA 0.0007 mIU/mL for HCG, 0.35 pg/mL for PSA, and 0.33 pg/mL for CEA (0.002-120) mIU/mL for HCG, (0.001–110) ng/mL for PSA, (0.001–100) ng/mL for CEA [127]
ECHEM Au@Th/GO, PtCu@rGO/graphitic carbon nitride PSA 16.6 fg/mL 50 fg/mL–40 ng/mL [128]
ECHEM GO/ssDNA/PLLA NPs VEGF, PSA (0.05-100) ng/mL for VEGF, (1-100) ng/mL for PSA [118]
ECHEM Fe3O4/PDDA/GO PSA, PSMA 15 fg/mL for PSA, 4.8 fg/mL for PSMA (61 fg/mL–3.9 pg/mL) for PSA, (9.8 fg/mL–10 pg/mL) for PSMA [129]
ECHEM Au@PBNPs/O-GS, Au@NiNPs/O-GS fPSA, PSA 6.7 pg/mL for fPSA, 3.4 pg/mL for PSA (0.02–10) ng/mL for fPSA, (0.01–50) ng/mL for PSA [126]
ECHEM GS/DA/Fe3O4/FC PSA 2 pg/mL (0.01–40) ng/mL [92]
ECHEM Carbon-graphene/aptamer EN2 protein 38.5 nM (35–185) nM [119]
ECHEM GS-MB-CS PSA 13 pg/mL (0.05–5.00) ng/mL [93]
ECHEM 3D graphene/Au PSA 0.59 ng/mL (0–10) ng/mL [94]
FET rGO PSA-ACT 100 fg/mL (10−7–1) μg/mL [105]
Fluorescence GQDs–NR ACP 28 μU/mL (0–1500) μU/mL [133]
Fluorescence GO/peptide/FITC PSA 0.3 nM (0–20) nM [64]
ECL Au/Ag-rGO/aminated-GQDs/carboxyl-GQDs PSA 0.29 pg/mL 1 pg/mL–10 ng/mL [96]
ECL graphene PSA 8 pg/mL 10 pg/mL–8 ng/mL [95]
Colorimetric GO/MB PSA [134]