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Table 3 Methylparaben (MeP), ethylparaben (EtP), and n-propylparaben (n-PrP) release from gel-filled baby teethers into water and saliva simulant and their detected concentrations in plastic and gel material

From: Examination of paraben release from baby teethers through migration tests and GC–MS analysis using a stable isotope dilution assay

Baby teether Migration test/product material Individual paraben concentrations Total paraben amount Units
MeP EtP n-PrP
No. 1 Water 41 (17.3) < LOD 62 (31.6) 103 µg 100 mL−1
No. 1 Saliva simulant 34 (7.3) < LOD 74 (1.0) 108 µg 100 mL−1
No. 1 Plastic 506 < LOD 736 1242 µg g−1
No. 1 Gel 367 < LOD 52 419 µg g−1
No. 2 Water 54 (8.9) < LOD 95 (25.3) 149 µg 100 mL−1
No. 2 Saliva simulant 46 (3.1) < LOD 102 (23.2) 148 µg 100 mL−1
No. 2 Plastic 258 < LOD 376 634 µg g−1
No. 2 Gel 140 < LOD 24 164 µg g−1
No. 3 Water 69 (20.6) < LOD 32 (3.7) 101 µg 100 mL−1
No. 3 Saliva simulant 30 (1.8) < LOD 27 (0.6)a 57 µg 100 mL−1
No. 3 Plastic 269 < LOD 95 364 µg g−1
No. 3 Gel 399 < LOD 23 422 µg g−1
No. 4 Water 111 (12.8) < LOD 51 (1.4) 162 µg 100 mL−1
No. 4 Saliva simulant 87 (2.3) < LOD 47 (6.4) 134 µg 100 mL−1
No. 4 Plastic 341 171 < LOD 512 µg g−1
No. 4 Gel 519 74 < LOD 593 µg g−1
  1. Migration test values: mean concentration with range (number in brackets) from two independently examined products
  2. Product material values: results from single analyses (n = 1)
  3. LOD limit of detection, LOQ limit of quantification
  4. aMean concentration calculated as 27.2 µg 100 mL−1, above the estimated LOQ value of 27.1 µg 100 mL−1