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Table 1 Larvicidal activity of the terpenes, terpenoids and related compounds against Cx. quinquefasciatus

From: In vitro and in silico studies of terpenes, terpenoids and related compounds with larvicidal and pupaecidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

  Assays Larvicidal activity (µg/mL)
III IV Pupaes
Molecules Classification LC50 LC50 LC50
1 p-Anisaldehyde Benzaldehyde 18.0 (15.5–20.4) 18.8 (16.9–20.6) 96.4 (92.5–100.2)
2 Canphor Bicyclic monoterpenoid 22.3 (21.6–23.9) 25.8 (23.6–27.9) 245.1 (234.6–255.5)
3 3-Carene Bicyclic monoterpene 24.7 (23.7–25.7) 25.5 (24.3–26.7) 105.5 (101.8–109.1)
4 Carvacrol Cyclic monoterpenoid 5.5 (5.28–5.72) 7.7 (7.3–8.1) 53.2 (51.8–54.5)
5 Carveol Cyclic monoterpenoid 103.0 (99.4–109.9) 104.6 (102.0–107.2) 249.0 (241.8–256.1)
6 Carvomenthol Cyclic monoterpenoid 198.2 (183.69–212.71) 219.8 (206.6–232.9) 452.2 (435.2–469.1)
7 (+)-Carvone Cyclic monoterpenoid 150.2 (149.0–151.4) 150.2 (145.5–154.8) 500.6 (495.0–506.1)
8 Carvotanacetol Cyclic monoterpenoid 152.3 (148.2–156.8) 198.3 (192.1–204.44) 245.1 (238.1–252.0)
9 β-Caryophyllene Bicyclic sesquiterpene 45.6 (43.8–47.2) 47.7 (42.2–52.9) 222.3 (216.8–27.7)
10 Citronellal Acyclic monoterpenoid 105.3 (98.3–102.3) 124.9 (123.2–125.6) 549.2 (557.35–565.5)
11 β-Citronellol Acyclic monoterpenoid 90.4 (88.9–91.9) 94.8 (93.4–95.2) 203.1 (198.44–207.76)
12 m-Cresol Phenolic derivative 60.0 (58.8–61.2) 60.6 (59.3–61.9) 107.7 (104.94–110.4)
13 o-Cresol Phenolic derivative 54.8 (53.6–56.0) 54.4 (53.8–54.0) 105.6 (103.4–107.7)
14 Cuminaldehyde Benzaldehyde 23.0 (22.0–24.0) 23.9 (22.0–25.8) 95.4 (91.1–99.6)
15 p-Cimene Cyclic monoterpene 23.1 (22.3–24.9) 24.0 (23.8–26.2) 306.3 (298.4–314.1)
16 trans-Dihydrocarvone Cyclic monoterpene 345.0 (340.8–350.1) 361.3 (346.2–366.4) 708.6 (698.1–719.1)
17 3,4-Dimethylcumene Phenolic derivative 35.6 (33.5–37.7) 47.7 (46.2–49.2) 105.5 (101.9–109.1)
18 Eucalyptol Bicyclic monoterpenoid 48.0 (47.9–49.1) 44.4 (43.3–45.5) 92.9 (86.2–99.6)
19 Geranial Acyclic monoterpenoid 52.2 (51.1–53.3) 53.4 (49.9–56.8) 193.9 (186.8–200.9)
20 Geraniol Acyclic monoterpenoid 20.4 (19.78–21.02) 20.4 (19.4–21.3) 104.6 (101.9–107.2)
21 Germacrene-D Sesquiterpene 45.4 (44.3–46.6) 45.6 (46.71–47.49) 229.0 (222.7–235.2)
22 α-Humulene Bicyclic sesquiterpene 100.5 (98.2–102.7) 101.8 (100.0–103.5) 508.3 (497.17–519.43)
23 Hydrocarvone Cyclic monoterpene 1351.6 (1228.68–1474.5) 1470.9 (1347.9–1592.9) > 2000
24 Hydrodihydrocarvone Cyclic monoterpenemonoterpene 1416.5 (1152.4–1680.1) 1628.2 (1364.6–1889.3) > 2000
25 3-Isopropylphenol Cyclic monoterpene 21.3 (20.9–21.6) 23.1 (21.2–24.9) 100.2 (96.4–104.4)
26 Isoborneol Bicyclic monoterpenoid 91.9 (89.7–94.0) 97.1 (94.1–100.1) 206.1 (199.7–213.5)
27 Isopulegol Cyclic monoterpene 247.4 (234.4–250.9) 297.3 (290.2–304.3) 610.8 (604.6–616.9)
28 trans-Isopulegone Cyclic monoterpene 529.1 (510.1–537.1) 538.8 (530.7–546.8) 908.6 (896.2–920.9)
29 Lavandullol Acyclic monoterpenoid 52.2 (51.0–53.3) 56.5 (53.3–59.9) 238.7 (224.6–252.7)
30 Limonene Cyclic monoterpene 24.2 (23.4–24.9) 27.3 (23.3–28.2) 98.4 (95.4–101.4)
31 Linalool Acyclic monoterpenoid 26.8 (26.0–27.5) 30.7 (29.7–31.6) 249.0 (241.8–256.1)
32 Menthol Cyclic monoterpenoid 443.6 (432.3–443.2) 404.1 (381.1–427.0) 529.1 (521.0–537.1)
33 Menthone Cyclic monoterpenoid 500.6 (495.0–506.1) 508.9 (500.8–516.9) 878.5 (867.4–889.5)
34 Myrcene Acyclic monoterpene 19.5 (18.5–20.4) 19.1 (18.0–20.2) 31.8 (30.2–33.2)
35 Neoisopulegol Cyclic monoterpenoid 458.4 (450.2–466.6) 554.2 (545.6–562.7) 908.6 (896.2–920.9)
36 (−)-Perillaldehyde Cyclic monoterpenoid 95.9 (94.8–97.0) 115.8 (113.0–118.6) 429.1 (422.9–435.22)
37 Phellandrene Cyclic monoterpene 490.7 (483.1–498.2) 554.3 (545.8–563.0) 908.6 (896.3–920.9)
38 α-Pinene Bicyclic monoterpene 24.4 (23.2–25.5) 25.5 (22.0–28.97) 98.4 (95.4–101.4)
39 β-Pinene Bicyclic monoterpene 19.6 (18.82–20.38) 24.3 (22.8–25.7) 96.9 (89.9–103.9)
40 (+)–Pulegone Cyclic monoterpenoid 168.7 (665.8–171.59) 188.1 (185.29–190.91) 496.2 (490.4–501.9)
41 Rotundifolone Cyclic monoterpenoid 58.9 (57.8–59.9) 62.5 (61.5–63.5) 287.4 (279.4–295.3)
42 Sabinene Bicyclic monoterpene 53.7 (51.9–55.4) 59.0 (58.3–60.7) 268.0 (262.5–273.0)
43 α-Terpinene Cyclic monoterpene 13.8 (12.9–14.7) 13.6 (12.8–14.3) 209.5 (204.0–214.9)
44 γ-Terpinene Cyclic monoterpenemonoterpene 45.4 (44.3–46.5) 56.8 (55.7–57.9) 287.4 (280.2–294.6)
45 4-Terpineol Cyclic monoterpenoid 94.2 (91.1–97.3) 97.7(90.6–104.8) 201.8 (195.6–208.0)
46 α-Terpineol Cyclic monoterpenoid 95.9 (93.8–98.0) 98.4 (95.3–101.4) 206.1 (198.4–213.7)
47 β-Terpineol Cyclic monoterpenoid 101.3 (99.5–103.0) 107.4 (103.9–110.8) 508.3 (497.1–519.43)
48 γ-Terpineol Cyclic monoterpenoid 100.5 (98.3–102.7) 103.6 (100.0–109.9) 4965.5 (4949.1–4981.9)
49 Terpinolene Cyclic monoterpene 20.4 (19.6–21.2) 18.6 (16.9–20.2) 107.4 (103.9–110.8)
50 Thymol Cyclic monoterpenoid 11.1 (10.28–11.9) 12.2 (11.7–12.7) 111.4 (108.5–114.2)
Tx Temephos H Organophosphorus 2.1 (1.8–2.5) 5.6 (4.1–6.7) 34.0 (29.1–39.0)
  1. In parenthesis, 95% confidence intervals, compounds activity is considered significantly different when the 95% CI fail to overlap