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Table 5 Examples of variants of non-physiologically-based in vitro procedures (not calibrated) applied to Pb particles

From: Experimental determination of the oral bioavailability and bioaccessibility of lead particles

GENERAL GASTRIC INTESTINAL
Reference Mixing T°C Extraction S/L (g.mL-1) Time, pH Fluid Time, pH Fluid
Sheppard et al. 1995[116]    Filtration 0.5 μm 1/167 24 h, pH 2.0 HCl   
Gasser et al. 1996[91] Stirred-flow reactor 24°C Filtration 0.22 μm 1/100 1 h, pH 1.0 to 3.0 HCl, ammonium acetate   
Gasser et al. 1996[91] Horizontal shaker 24°C Centrifugation (400 RCF; 10 min) 1/200 1 h, pH 1.0 HCl   
Rieuwerts et al. 2000[117] Inversion by hand 5 times at t = 1h Ambient Centrifugation (2,000 rpm; 2 min) 1/100 2 h, pH 1.2 HCl   
Yang et al. 2001[118] Rotation 30 rpm 37°C Filtration 0.2 μm 1/100 1 h, pH 2–2.5 HCl   
Mercier et al. 2002[119] End-over-end 30 rpm, at 20 min intervals, for 20 min 35-39°C Decantation, filtration 1/22 160 ±10 min, pH 6.0 to 2.0 HCl, acetic acid   
Yang et al. 2002[120] Rotation 30 rpm 37°C Filtration 0.2 μm 1/100 1 h, pH 2.0 HCl   
Scheckel and Ryan 2003[93] Continuous stirring 37°C Filtration 0.45 μm 1/160 1 h, pH 2.0 HCl 5 h, pH 7.0  
Yang et al. 2003[83] End-over-end,30 rpm 37°C Decantation, filtration 0.45 μm 1/40 and 1/100 1 h, pH 1.5 to 4.0 HCl, glycine 3 h, pH 7.0 NaHCO3
Beak et al. 2006[121] Variable speed mixer (150 rpm); 2 mL/min Ar 37°C Filtration 0.45 μm 1/167 2 h, pH 1.8 HCl 4 h, pH 7.0 NaOH
Turner and Simmonds 2006[98]   Ambient   1/100 Overnight HCl, pepsin   
Bosso and Enzweiler 2008[107] Orbital, 100 rpm 37°C Centrifugation (5,000 rpm; 20 min) 1/100 1 h, pH 1.5 HCl, glycine OR HCl, pepsin, NaCl 2 h, pH 7.0 NaHCO3
Le Bot et al. 2010, 2011[122, 123] Ultrasonication 37°C Filtration 0.45 μm   1 h, pH 1.5 HCl , 0.75-1.4% diluted   
Rasmussen et al. 2011[124]   37.5°C Centrifugation (5,000 g, ≤ 10 min) 1/2000 2 h, pH 1.5 HCl