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Table 1 Effect of Cu- CNP priming treatments on germination and growth parameters

From: Priming with copper-chitosan nanoparticles elicit tolerance against PEG-induced hyperosmotic stress and salinity in wheat

Germination /growth parameters Treatments
Non- Stress Under PEG-induced hyperosmotic stress Under salt stress
Control Hydro-priming 0.12% Cu- CNP 0.16% Cu- CNP Control Hydro-priming 0.12% Cu- CNP 0.16% Cu- CNP Control Hydro-priming 0.12% Cu- CNP 0.16% Cu- CNP
Final Germination percentage
(%)
100% a 100% a 100% a 100% a 100% a 100% a 100% a 100% a 100% a 100% a 95% a 100% a
Mean Germination Time (MGT)
(hours)
72.92 ab 65.95 abc 61.77 bc 56.76 c 75.76 ab 70.35 abc 77.9 a 75.96 ab 68.12 abc 73.03 ab 81.5 a 75.26 ab
Germination index (GI) % 8.4 bc 11.9 bc 15.46 ab 20.63 a 7.59 bc 9.08 bc 6.77 c 7.37 bc 10.62 bc 8.0 bc 5.17 c 7.21 c
Vigor index (VI) % 0.535 c 0.582 b 0.762 a 0.779 a 0.533 c 0.243 e 0.508 cd 0.499 d 0.194 f 0.153 g 0.237 e 0.199 f
Germination Energy (GE) 34.0 abc 45.5 a 16.5 bcd 8.5 d 41.05 ab 15.0 cd 12.5 cd 12.5 cd 6.0 d 4.0 d 7.0 d 13.5 cd
Shoot length (Centimeters) 5.400 b 5.835 b 7.640 a 7.805 a 5.330 b 2.430 c 5.160 b 4.990 b 1.945 c 1.530 c 2.500 c 1.985 c
Root length
(Centimeters)
4.13 b 3.90 b 6.81 a 8.12 a 8.46 a 3.56 b 7.68 a 7.91 a 2.05 c 1.95 c 3.32 bc 3.80 b
  1. Mean values of four replicates presented. Within a row, means sharing the same letters are non-significantly different (p > 0.05 and p > 0.01) according to the Tukey’s Test (HSD)