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Table 3 Comparison of the method extraction efficiency with the other PAHs determination techniques

From: Preparation of a new coating of graphene oxide/nickel complex on a nickelized metal surface for direct immersion solid phase microextraction of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

Analytical technique Fiber coating Samples LR (µg L–1) LOD (µg L–1) RSD% Extraction time (min) Refs.
DI-SPME-GC-FID DVB/CAR/PDMS Lake water 0.003‒0.10 0.003‒0.030 0.30‒19.00 100 [52]
DI-HS-GC–MS PDMS/DVB Water 0.30‒10.00 0.07‒0.32 0.60‒24.29 80 [53]
HS-GC-FID PDMS/DVB Aqueous sample 0.10‒200.00 0.03‒1.00 5.00‒13.00 30 [54]
D-μ-SPE- GC‒MS Zeolitic material Water 2.08–208.00 0.10–0.89 0.03–6.49 10 [55]
HS-SPME-HPLC‒UV 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-1-propanthiol Water 1.00‒500 0.03–1.00 4.10–6.70 20 [56]
DI-SPME-HPLC-FLD PDMS/DVB Water 0.40‒169.9 0.07‒0.99 9.90–13.10 90 [57]
DI-SPME-HPLC–UV CFYM Groundwater;
River water
0.005–100.00 0.14‒1.83 4.40‒8.20 90 [58]
DI-coiled-SPME-HPLC–UV Bone wastes Tab water;
Well water;
Roadside soil
0.01–99.00 0.03–0.10 3.10‒9.00 70 [59]
DI-SPME-HPLC‒UV Nickel/graphene oxide/nickel-complex Tomato Potato
Bread
0.10‒200.0 0.03–0.30 0.32‒2.94 30 This work