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Table. 5 Protein contents and amino acid compositions of defatted flour, protein concentrate and isolate of Cirina butyrospermi expressed as g/100 g dry matter

From: Chemical composition, energy and nutritional values, digestibility and functional properties of defatted flour, protein concentrates and isolates from Carbula marginella (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and Cirina butyrospermi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae)

Proteins/amino acids Defatted flour Protein concentrate Protein isolate
Proteins 40.81 ± 0.20c 65.62 ± 1.54b 87.41 ± 0.24a
Histidine 0.96 ± 0.52a 1.56 ± 0.37a 1.56 ± 0.11a
Threonine 2.47 ± 0.19b 3.62 ± 0.94a 4.18 ± 0.98a
Valine 0.36 ± 0.03b 0.64 ± 0.1a 0.55 ± 0.28a
Methionine + cysteine 4.32 ± 0.33c 5.46 ± 0.41b 7.45 ± 0.56a
Isoleucine 3.10 ± 0.15b 5.34 ± 1.25a 6.51 ± 0.58a
Leucine 1.97 ± 0.18c 2.15 ± 0.36bc 4.24 ± 0.59a
Lysine 5.38 ± 0.01c 7.76 ± 0.10b 10.22 ± 0.00a
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 2.72 ± 0.00a 1.75 ± 073b 2.53 ± 0.35ab
Tryptophan ND ND ND
Aspartic acid + asparagine 3.04 ± 0.00c 9.56 ± 0.00b 11.51 ± 1.24a
Glutamic acid + glutamine 4.38 ± 0.98c 7.43 ± 0.93b 10.81 ± 1.44a
Serine 3.73 ± 0.84b 3.35 ± 0.82b 6.05 ± 0.42a
Glycine 3.04 ± 1.48c 6.45 ± 1.6b 9.37 ± 0.66a
Alanine 2.95 ± 1.08b 7.42 ± 1.9a 7.14 ± 0.69a
Arginine 0.38 ± 0.05c 0.78 ± 0.17ab 1.08 ± 0.3a
Proline 2.17 ± 0.97b 2.40 ± 0.68b 4.15 ± 0.44a
Essential amino acids 21.29 28.26 37.23
Non-essential amino acids 19.68 37.39 50.12
  1. The same superscript letters in each row indicate no significant difference (p-value < 0.05) between the mean values