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Table 5 Comparison of liquid versus dried urine analytes (n = 18)

From: Reliability of a dried urine test for comprehensive assessment of urine hormones and metabolites

Variable Dried Liquid Difference (95% CI) ICC (95% CI)
Hormones (n = 18)
 Estrone (ug/d) 10.78 (6.26, 18.73) 12.78 (7.22, 20.65) 1.28 [0.09, 2.47]a 0.92 [0.80, 0.97]
 Estradiol (ug/d) 1.32 (0.70, 3.26) 1.29 (0.74, 3.36) 0.09 [-0.01, 0.19] 0.96 [0.89, 0.98]
 Estriol (ug/d) 6.82 (3.45, 11.64) 7.15 (4.76, 14.41) 0.86 [0.05, 1.67]a 0.90 [0.77, 0.96]
 2-Hydroxyestrone (ug/d) 2.22 (0.98, 6.24) 1.84 (1.17, 6.24) − 0.01 [− 0.18, 0.16] 0.98 [0.94, 0.99]
 2-Hydroxyestradiol (ug/d) 0.18 (0.09, 0.58) 0.18 (0.08, 0.47) 0.00 [− 0.02, 0.03] 0.97 [0.92, 0.99]
 4-Hydroxyestrone (ug/d) 0.31 (0.16, 0.67) 0.40 (0.25, 0.62) 0.03 [− 0.02, 0.09] 0.95 [0.87, 0.98]
 16-Hydroxyestrone (ug/d) 0.69 (0.42, 1.48) 0.61 (0.39, 1.24) − 0.07 [− 0.18, 0.05] 0.95 [0.87, 0.98]
 2-Methoxyestrone (ug/d) 1.64 (1.05, 3.56) 1.70 (1.50, 3.58) 0.12 [− 0.07, 0.30] 0.97 [0.94, 0.99]
 Testosterone (ug/d) 7.64 (4.97, 49.46) 8.42 (5.80, 51.40) 2.07 [− 0.26, 4.40] 0.99 [0.98, 1.00]
 Epitestosterone (ug/d) 7.23 (4.01, 11.23) 8.21 (4.23, 13.98) 0.51 [− 0.06, 1.07] 0.99 [0.97, 1.00]
 5a-Dihydrotestosterone (ug/d) 5.53 (2.72, 11.59) 4.94 (2.68, 10.35) − 0.61 [− 1.02, − 0.19]a 0.99 [0.97, 1.00]
 Androsterone (ug/d) 1331.99 (929.43, 1933.30) 1237.63 (813.31, 1847.10) − 33.02 [− 105.70, 39.67] 0.99 [0.98, 1.00]
 Etiocholanolone (ug/d) 847.93 (430.73, 1088.18) 943.49 (414.13, 1161.61) 19.76 [− 13.02, 52.54] 0.99 [0.98, 1.00]
 5α-Androstanediol (ug/d) 110.09 (57.50, 197.14) 119.40 (65.63, 226.93) 15.67 [− 12.67, 44.01] 0.90 [0.76, 0.96]
 5β-Androstanediol (ug/d) 35.58 (14.05, 72.42) 46.39 (14.72, 65.39) − 0.54 [− 13.93, 12.85] 0.88 [0.73, 0.95]
 DHEA (ug/d) 131.42 (52.69, 444.35) 130.86 (53.27, 457.05) 8.65 [− 36.66, 53.96] 1.00 [0.99, 1.00]
 6-Hydroxymelatoninsulfate (ug/d) 7.87 (5.93, 14.33) 8.26 (5.93, 14.67) 0.04 [− 1.14, 1.21] 0.99 [0.98, 1.00]
Organic Acids (n = 20)
 Methylmalonic acid (ng/mg-Cr) 0.18 (0.15, 0.23) 0.18 (0.16, 0.25) 0.00 [− 0.01, 0.02] 0.96 [0.90, 0.98]
 Homovanillic acid (ng/mg-Cr) 0.52 ± 0.17 0.52 ± 0.16 − 0.01 [− 0.05, 0.02] 0.88 [0.74, 0.95]
 Vanillylmandelic acid (ng/mg-Cr) 0.45 ± 0.13 0.41 ± 0.12 − 0.05 [− 0.08, -0.02]a 0.79 [0.57, 0.91]
 Kynurenic acid (ng/mg-Cr) 0.26 ± 0.08 0.25 ± 0.08 − 0.01 [− 0.02, − 0.00]a 0.95 [0.88, 0.98]
 Xanthurenic acid (ng/mg-Cr) 0.06 (0.05, 0.08) 0.06 (0.05, 0.07) − 0.00 [− 0.00, 0.00] 0.98 [0.95, 0.99]
 5-HIAA (ng/mg-Cr) 0.46 (0.43, 0.57) 0.44 (0.40, 0.55) − 0.01 [− 0.05, 0.02] 0.98 [0.96, 0.99]
 Pyroglutamic acid (ng/mg-Cr) 4.42 ± 0.72 4.06 ± 0.69 − 0.41 [− 0.58, − 0.23]b 0.75 [0.51, 0.89]
 β-Hydroxyisovaleric acid (ng/mg-Cr) 0.29 ± 0.12 0.27 ± 0.12 − 0.02 [− 0.03, − 0.00]a 0.95 [0.88, 0.98]
  1. For liquid and dried measurements, data presented as mean ± SD for normally distributed variables and median (IQR) for skewed variables; the differences were normally distributed and are presented as mean [95% CI]
  2. ap < 0.05; bp < 0.0001 for the liquid minus dried difference by paired t-test
  3. 5-HIAA: 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid; Cr: creatinine, DHEA: dehydroepiandrosterone; ICC: intraclass correlation coefficient
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