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Table 3 Concentrations, odour thresholds and odour activity values (OAVs) of key aroma compounds (FD factor ≥ 16) in cold fermented bagels

From: Characterization of the key aroma compounds in three types of bagels by means of the sensomics approach

No. Compounds Concentration (μg kg−1) Threshold in starch (μg kg−1) Odour activity values (OAVs)c
CB BF24 BF48 CB BF24 BF48
1 Acetic acid 300 ± 2.0c 480 ± 2.0b 510 ± 2.0a 31,140 < 1 < 1 < 1
2 2,3-Butanedione (diacetyl) 710 ± 5.1c 11,800 ± 12.0b 12,950 ± 15.5a 6.5 109 1815 1992
3 2/3-Methyl butanal 164 ± 2.1c 321 ± 2.1b 434 ± 2.0a 32a 5 10 14
4 Butanoic acid 113 ± 1.0c 201 ± 1.0b 317 ± 1.0a 100a 1 2 3
5 Acetoin 1140 ± 4.5c 1245 ± 5.0b 1276 ± 4.0a Nf nd nd nd
6 3-Methyl butanol 647 ± 3.1c 1126 ± 7.8b 1364 ± 10.0a 102 6 11 13
7 Furfural 101 ± 1.0b 126 ± 1.0a 124 ± 1.0a Nf nd nd nd
8 2-Methylpyrazine 30 ± 0.2c 54 ± 0.2b 76 ± 0.2a Nf nd nd nd
9 3-Methylbutanoic acid 64 ± 1.0c 276 ± 2.1b 314 ± 2.0a 24 3 12 13
10 Methional 16 ± 0.1c 24 ± 0.1b 43 ± 0.1a 0.27 59 89 160
11 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline 17 ± 0.1ab 19 ± 0.1a 18 ± 0.1a 0.0073a 2329 2603 2466
12 Benzaldehyde 174 ± 3.0c 920 ± 4.5b 1121 ± 6.0a 350 < 1 3 3
13 5-Methyl-2-furanmethanol 46 ± 0.1c 52 ± 0.1b 58 ± 0.1a 11.9b 4 4 5
14 (Z)-4-Heptenal 51 ± 0.1c 135 ± 0.2b 234 ± 0.2a 3 17 45 78
15 Acetyl pyrazine 171 ± 1.0c 186 ± 1.0b 193 ± 1.0a nf nd nd nd
16 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone 234 ± 2.0c 347 ± 2.1b 453 ± 3.0a 13 b 18 27 35
17 Benzyl alcohol 115 ± 1.0c 176 ± 2.0b 182 ± 2.1a nf nd nd nd
18 Phenyl acetaldehyde 15 ± 0.0b 18 ± 0.1a 17 ± 0.1a 28b < 1 < 1 < 1
19 2-Phenyl ethanol 1101 ± 5.0c 1134 ± 5.0b 1512 ± 5.0a 125b 9 9 12
20 Octanoic acid 87 ± 2.1c 102 ± 2.0b 116 ± 2.0a Nf nd nd nd
21 4-Vinyl-2-methoxyphenol 146 ± 2.0c 305 ± 2.1b 512 ± 4.0a 18b 8 17 28
22 Vanillin 56 ± 0.1c 73 ± 0.1b 95 ± 0.1a 4.6b 12 16 21
  1. nf not found, nd not determined, CB control bagel, BF24 24 h fermented bagels, BF48 48 h fermented bagels; Mean ± SD; superscripts with different letters in a row are significantly (p < 0.05) different
  2. aReference; Zehentbauer and Grosch [48]
  3. bReference; Rychlik and Grosch [10]
  4. cOAV on the basis of odour thresholds in starch