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Table 4 Vanillic acid yield and its molar conversion during the fermentation of ferulic acid standard solution and liquors of pineapple residues (PP and PCL) (n = 3)

From: Bioconversion of ferulic acid attained from pineapple peels and pineapple crown leaves into vanillic acid and vanillin by Aspergillus niger I-1472

SubstrateYield (mg L−1)aMolar conversion (%)b
Small volume feeding
 300 mg L−1 ferulic acid< 0.000
 PCL liquor0.9 ± 0.15.1
 1000 mg L−1 ferulic acid5.8 ± 0.711.2
 PP liquor4 ± 27.9
Large volume feeding
 300 mg L−1 ferulic acid3.9 ± 0.78.2
 PCL liquor6 ± 120.7
 1000 mg L−1 ferulic acid15 ± 211.2
 PP liquor7 ± 27.9
  1. aYield indicates the concentration (mg L−1) of vanillic acid/vanillin produced after A. niger fermentation
  2. bMolar conversion indicates the percentage of vanillic acid/vanillin molar yield produced from the molar consumption of ferulic acid during A. niger fermentation