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Table 3 Yield and molar conversion of the vanillic acid and vanillin from the fermentation of PP and PCL liquor in two different feeding modes (n = 3)

From: Bioconversion of ferulic acid attained from pineapple peels and pineapple crown leaves into vanillic acid and vanillin by Aspergillus niger I-1472

ProductSmall volume feedingLarge volume feeding
PP liquorPCL liquorPP liquorPCL liquor
Ferulic acidFeed (μmol)33 ± 510.1 ± 0.7109 ± 1734 ± 2
Consumed (μmol)3310.14818.4
Remainedmg L−1n/dn/d117 ± 1030 ± 1
μmol< 0.00< 0.0060 ± 515.4 ± 0.5
Vanillic acidYieldamg L−14 ± 20.9 ± 0.17 ± 26 ± 1
μmol2.6 ± 0.90.52 ± 0.073.8 ± 0.93.8 ± 0.7
Molar conversion (%)b7.95.17.920.7
VanillinYieldamg L−1n/d0.8 ± 0.15 ± 12.5 ± 0.2
μmoln/d0.51 ± 0.063 ± 0.81.6 ± 0.2
Molar conversion (%)bn/d0.56.38.9
  1. n/d not detected
  2. aYield indicates the concentration (mg L−1) of vanillic acid/vanillin produced from A. niger fermentation
  3. bMolar conversion indicates the percentage of vanillic acid/vanillin molar yield produced from the molar consumption of ferulic acid during A. niger fermentation