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Table 2 Different synthesized heterostructure composites for the degradation of various organic pollutants

From: Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in water and wastewater: a review of treatment processes and use of photocatalyst immobilized on functionalized carbon in AOP degradation

Photocatalyst Synthesis method Pollutants Removal efficiency (%) Time Light source References
g-C3N4 Polycondensation Ibuprofen 20 4 h 35 W Xenon lamp [244]
Aspirin 30
Ciprofloxaci n 60
Tetracycline 86
BaTiO3/TiO2 One-step calcination Acetaminophen 95 4 h 500 W Xenon lamp [245]
ZnO/g-C3N4 Thermal condensation Tetracycline 78.4 50 min 300 W Xenon lamp [246]
Oxytetracycline 63.5
Ag/g-C3N4 Photo-reduction Sulfamethazole 99.5 60 min 300 W Xenon lamp [247]
g-C3N4/TiO2/Fe3O4@SiO2 Sol–gel Ibuprofen 92 3 h 330 Wm−2 compart fluorescent lamps [248]
g-C3N4/MoS2 Hydrothermal Levofloxaci n 75.81 140 min Ultrasonic wave at 30 kHz [234]
Methylene Blue 98.43 14 min
Ag3PO4/GO/g-C3N4 Chemical precipitation Rhodamine B 94.8 50 min 150 W Xenon lamp [249]
BiVO4/TiO2/RGO Hydrothermal Tetracycline 96.2 60 min 1000 W Xenon lamp [250]
Oxytetracycline 97.5
Chlortetracycline 98.7
Doxycycline 99.6
Ag2O/CeO2 Thermal deposition Enrofloxacin 87.11 120 300 W Xenon lamp [251]
g-C3N4/CNT/BiVO4 Wet impregnation Phenol 80.6 120 min Sunlight (illumination intensity; 500 W halogen lamp) [192]
g-C3N4/AgBr/rGO Hydrothermal reaction Tetracycline 78.4 90 min 250 W Xenon lamp [252]
2,4-Dichlorophenol 68.2 6 h
rGO/WS2/Mg-doped ZnO Electrostatic self-assembly and coprecipitation Rhodamine B 95 14 min UV lamp [253]
90 90 min Solar light