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Table 1 The inhibition efficiencies, η, of different benzimidazolesa as corrosion inhibitors on the different materials in various solutions

From: Recent advances in the use of benzimidazoles as corrosion inhibitors

Inhibitor (I) Medium Material Iconc (mmol/L) Techniques η (%) Refs.
Benzimidazole 1 Deaerated 1 mol/L HCl MS 20 EIS; TE at T = 20–60 °C 29.5–60% [22]
2-Aminobenzimidazole 10 20 84.0–86.8%
2-Mercaptobenzimidazole 11 1 93.9–97.0%
1-Benzylbenzimidazole 12 5 97.2–97.8%
1,2-Dibenzylbenzimidazole 13 1 97.4–98.2%
2-Mercaptobenzimidazole 11 1 M HCl MS 50–1000 TE at 30 °C; SEM–EDX; EIS 82.6–96.5 [23]
1,8-Bis(1-chlorobenzylbenzimidazolyl)-octane 14 0.1 M HCl MS 0.0017–0.13 TE at 30 °C; WL; EIS; SEM 54.3–97.6% [24]
0.2 M HCl 55.8–97.5%
0.5 M HCl 57.8–97.8%
1 M HCl 70.0–97.9%
1, 4-Bis-benzimidazolyl-butane 15 0.5 M HCl MS 0.017–0.68 EIS, TE at 30 °C; AI; WL; AFM 64.2–98.1% [25]
N-(2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl) benzamide 16 1 M HCl MS 0.1–1 EIS; TE at 25 °C; AI; DFT 72–97% [26]
N-(2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)benzenesulfonamide 17 67–96%
N-((1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methyl)benzamide 18 56–95%
N-((1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methyl)benzenesulfonamide 19 40-93%
2-(4-Pyridil)benzimidazole 20 1 M HCl MS 0.1–2 EIS; WL at 25, 35 and 45 °C; AI; MD; DFT 72.4–94.05% [27]
2-Aminomethylbenzimidazole 21 1 M HCl MS 0.5–0.1 TE at 25 °C; WL; AI; SEM; XPS 77.4–84.0% [28]
Bis(2-Benzimidazolylmethyl) amine 22 88.1–88.8%
Tri(2-Benzimidazolylmethyl) amine 9 91.4–93.4%
2-Methylbenzimidazole23 1 M HCl MS 0.05–0.2 WL and EI at 30, 35 and 45 °C 88.3–91.01% [29]
2-Ethylbenzimidazole 24 88.3–91.3%
2-Propylbenzimidazole 25 88.3–91.4%
2-(2-Pyridyl)benzimidazole 26 1 M HCl MS 0.5–5 TE at 30 °C WL; EIS; AI 91.33–97.18% [30]
2-Chlorobenzimidazole 27 88.55–95.43%
2-Bromobenzimidazole 27 87.16–93.78%
6-(Dodecyloxy)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole 29 1 M HCl MS 0.1–0.001 WL at 25 ± 1 °C; DFT 74.2–95.0% [31]
2-(4-Nitrophenyl) benzimidazole 1a 1 M HCl MS 0.1–1 TE at 25 °C; WL at 30 °C; EIS; SEM; DFT; MD 90.3–95.9% [16]
2-(4-aminophenyl) benzimidazole 1b 86.1–93.9%
2-(2-nitrophenyl) benzimidazole 1c 82.8–90.9
2-(2-aminophenyl) benzimidazole 1d 79.1–89.3%
Bis-benzimidazole 8a 1 M HCl MS 0.1–1 TE at 25 °C; WL at 25 °C; MD 84.0–97.0% [20]
Bis-benzimidazole 8b 73.0–94.5
Bis-benzimidazole 8c 62.0–94.0
Bis-benzimidazole 8d 62.0–94.0 [20]
1-Butyl-3-methyl-1H-benzimidazolium iodide 30 0.5 M H2SO4 MS 0.25–5 TE at 25 °C WL; EIS; AI; SEM; AFM; DFT 90.6–98.7% [32]
Benzimidazole 1 1 M HCl CS 0.05–0.25 TE at 25 °C; AI 35.5–52.0% [33]
2-Methylbenzimidazole 23 40.0–56.0%
2-Mercaptobenzimidazole 11 72.0–89.0%
Benzimidazole 1 0.5 M H2SO4 32.4–50.0%
2-Methylbenzimidazole 23 38.2–52.9%
2-Mercaptobenzimidazole 11 75.0–91.2%
Benzimidazole 1 0.5 M H2SO4+ 0.02 mM NaBr 32.4–50.0%
2-Methylbenzimidazole 23 38.2–52.9%
2-Mercaptobenzimidazole 11 75.0–91.2%
2-Chlorobenzimidazole 27 1 M HCl CS 0.1–10 TE at 25 °C EIS; AI; DFT 39.4–57.1% [2]
6-Bromo-1H-benzimidazole 28 25.9–89.4%
1H-Benzimidazole-5-amine 32 34.0–74.9%
2-Aminomethylbenzimidazole 21 21.8–69.1%
1H-Benzimidazol-5-yl-methanol 33 26.4–73.3%
N,N′-bis(benzimidazole-2-yl-methyl) hydroxyethylamine 34 0.5 M HCl CS 0.01–0.2 EIS; DFT 11.83–59.27 [34]
N,N′-bis(benzimidazole-2-yl-methyl) hydroxyethylamine 35 41.26–69.22
1-Octyl-2-(octylthio)-1H-benzimidazole 36 1 M HCl CS 0.01–1000 mM EIS; PP; AI; SEM; MD 74.7–92.3 [35]
1-(2-Pyridinyl)-2-(o-hydroxyphenyl)Benzimidazole 37 1 M HCl API 5L X52 steel 0.005–0.2 EIS; SEM 67.7–91.0 [38]
1-(2-Pyridinyl)-2-(m-hydroxyphenyl)Benzimidazole 38 56.8–86.2
1-(2-Pyridinyl)-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)Benzimidazole 39 64.9–83.7
Benzimidazole 1 3% NaCl AIS 316 0.025–1 TE at 24 °C 40.42–71.44% [39]
AIS 1010 2.41–51.21%
2-(2-Pyridyl)benzimidazole 26 NACE brine ID196 API X60 steel 2.56, 7.68 TE at 30 °C FTIR; EIS 46.0–67.3 [40]
2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-1H- Benzo[d]Imidazole 6a 3.5 wt % NaCl + CO2 J55 steel 0.176–1.407 TE at 25 °C; WL at 60 °C; EIS; XPS 56.8–94.7% [19]
2-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)-1H-Benzo[d] Imidazole 6b 50.5–87.2%
2-(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl)-1H-Benzo[d] Imidazole 6c 37.2–79.3%
Benzimidazole 1 1 M HCl Pure Fe 1–50 TE at 25 °C; EIS. AI 47.58–51.07% [41]
2-Aminobenzimidazole 10 70.64–78.28%
2-Hydroxybenzimidazole 40 51.88–58.05%
2-(2-Pyridil)benzimidazole 26 62.84–69.83%
2-Aminomethylbenzimidazole 21 1 M HCl Pure Fe 1–50   60.77–68.24% [41]
2-Mercaptobenzimidazole 11 0.1 M HCl Al 1–100 TE at 20-60 °C. AI 60.1–80.9% [42]
5-Methylbenzimidazole-2-thiol 41 0.01–1 58.2–77.0%
5-Chlorobenzimidazole-2-thiol 42 0.01–1 47.4–78.3%
Benzimidazole 1 10% AcOH 6061 Al-SiCp 0.05–0.2 TE at 30–50 °C 13.29–58.56% [43]
20% AcOH 17.05–64.58
30% AcOH 10.29–58.90
2-Mercaptobenzimidazole 11 Aerated 0.5 M HCl Cu 0.5 TE at 40 °C; WL at 40 °C; EIS 91.6% [44]
2-Mercaptobenzimidazole 11 1 M HNO3 Cu 0.005–1 WL at 25, 35 and 45 °C 27.5–91.5% [45]
2-(methylthio)benzimidazole 43 28.5–92.5%
2-{[(6-Nitro-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)imino]methyl}phenol(44 0.4 M NaCl + 0.1 M NaOH Cu, brass 1 TE at 25 °C; EIS 91.0; 97.4 [46]
1-{[(6-Nitro-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)imino]methyl}naphthalen-2-ol 45 71.0; 92.0
2-Mercaptobenzimidazole 11 0.1 M HCl Zn 0.063–0.5 TE at 30 °C; WL; AI; SEM 68.5–89.7% [47]
Ethyl-2-(benzimidazol-2-yl-thio)acetate 47 0.063–0.5 75.2–93.0%
2-Hydroxybenzimidazole 40 0.063–0.5 57.4–85.3%
2-Hydroxy-5-nitro-benzimidazole 46 0.05–0.2 55.6–82.5%
  1. TE Tafel extrapolation, WL weight loss, EIS electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, MS mild steel, CS carbon steel, SS stainless steel, η inhibition effectiveness, EIS electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, CR corrosion rate, AI adsorbtion isotherm, SEM scanning electron microscopy, AFM atomic force microscopy, FTIR Fourier transform infrared, OP optical profilometry, XPS X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), MD molecular dynamics simulation, EDX energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, DFT Density Functional Theory
  2. aThe structures of the benzimidazoles are found in Figs. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11