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Table 1 The inhibition efficiencies, η, of different benzimidazolesa as corrosion inhibitors on the different materials in various solutions

From: Recent advances in the use of benzimidazoles as corrosion inhibitors

Inhibitor (I)MediumMaterialIconc (mmol/L)Techniquesη (%)Refs.
Benzimidazole 1Deaerated 1 mol/L HClMS20EIS; TE at T = 20–60 °C29.5–60%[22]
2-Aminobenzimidazole 102084.0–86.8%
2-Mercaptobenzimidazole 11193.9–97.0%
1-Benzylbenzimidazole 12597.2–97.8%
1,2-Dibenzylbenzimidazole 13197.4–98.2%
2-Mercaptobenzimidazole 111 M HClMS50–1000TE at 30 °C; SEM–EDX; EIS82.6–96.5[23]
1,8-Bis(1-chlorobenzylbenzimidazolyl)-octane 140.1 M HClMS0.0017–0.13TE at 30 °C; WL; EIS; SEM54.3–97.6%[24]
0.2 M HCl55.8–97.5%
0.5 M HCl57.8–97.8%
1 M HCl70.0–97.9%
1, 4-Bis-benzimidazolyl-butane 150.5 M HClMS0.017–0.68EIS, TE at 30 °C; AI; WL; AFM64.2–98.1%[25]
N-(2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl) benzamide 161 M HClMS0.1–1EIS; TE at 25 °C; AI; DFT72–97%[26]
N-(2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)benzenesulfonamide 1767–96%
N-((1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methyl)benzamide 1856–95%
N-((1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methyl)benzenesulfonamide 1940-93%
2-(4-Pyridil)benzimidazole 201 M HClMS0.1–2EIS; WL at 25, 35 and 45 °C; AI; MD; DFT72.4–94.05%[27]
2-Aminomethylbenzimidazole 211 M HClMS0.5–0.1TE at 25 °C; WL; AI; SEM; XPS77.4–84.0%[28]
Bis(2-Benzimidazolylmethyl) amine 2288.1–88.8%
Tri(2-Benzimidazolylmethyl) amine 991.4–93.4%
2-Methylbenzimidazole231 M HClMS0.05–0.2WL and EI at 30, 35 and 45 °C88.3–91.01%[29]
2-Ethylbenzimidazole 2488.3–91.3%
2-Propylbenzimidazole 2588.3–91.4%
2-(2-Pyridyl)benzimidazole 261 M HClMS0.5–5TE at 30 °C WL; EIS; AI91.33–97.18%[30]
2-Chlorobenzimidazole 2788.55–95.43%
2-Bromobenzimidazole 2787.16–93.78%
6-(Dodecyloxy)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole 291 M HClMS0.1–0.001WL at 25 ± 1 °C; DFT74.2–95.0%[31]
2-(4-Nitrophenyl) benzimidazole 1a1 M HClMS0.1–1TE at 25 °C; WL at 30 °C; EIS; SEM; DFT; MD90.3–95.9%[16]
2-(4-aminophenyl) benzimidazole 1b86.1–93.9%
2-(2-nitrophenyl) benzimidazole 1c82.8–90.9
2-(2-aminophenyl) benzimidazole 1d79.1–89.3%
Bis-benzimidazole 8a1 M HClMS0.1–1TE at 25 °C; WL at 25 °C; MD84.0–97.0%[20]
Bis-benzimidazole 8b73.0–94.5
Bis-benzimidazole 8c62.0–94.0
Bis-benzimidazole 8d62.0–94.0[20]
1-Butyl-3-methyl-1H-benzimidazolium iodide 300.5 M H2SO4MS0.25–5TE at 25 °C WL; EIS; AI; SEM; AFM; DFT90.6–98.7%[32]
Benzimidazole 11 M HClCS0.05–0.25TE at 25 °C; AI35.5–52.0%[33]
2-Methylbenzimidazole 2340.0–56.0%
2-Mercaptobenzimidazole 1172.0–89.0%
Benzimidazole 10.5 M H2SO432.4–50.0%
2-Methylbenzimidazole 2338.2–52.9%
2-Mercaptobenzimidazole 1175.0–91.2%
Benzimidazole 10.5 M H2SO4+ 0.02 mM NaBr32.4–50.0%
2-Methylbenzimidazole 2338.2–52.9%
2-Mercaptobenzimidazole 1175.0–91.2%
2-Chlorobenzimidazole 271 M HClCS0.1–10TE at 25 °C EIS; AI; DFT39.4–57.1%[2]
6-Bromo-1H-benzimidazole 2825.9–89.4%
1H-Benzimidazole-5-amine 3234.0–74.9%
2-Aminomethylbenzimidazole 2121.8–69.1%
1H-Benzimidazol-5-yl-methanol 3326.4–73.3%
N,N′-bis(benzimidazole-2-yl-methyl) hydroxyethylamine 340.5 M HClCS0.01–0.2EIS; DFT11.83–59.27[34]
N,N′-bis(benzimidazole-2-yl-methyl) hydroxyethylamine 3541.26–69.22
1-Octyl-2-(octylthio)-1H-benzimidazole 361 M HClCS0.01–1000 mMEIS; PP; AI; SEM; MD74.7–92.3[35]
1-(2-Pyridinyl)-2-(o-hydroxyphenyl)Benzimidazole 371 M HClAPI 5L X52 steel0.005–0.2EIS; SEM67.7–91.0[38]
1-(2-Pyridinyl)-2-(m-hydroxyphenyl)Benzimidazole 3856.8–86.2
1-(2-Pyridinyl)-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)Benzimidazole 3964.9–83.7
Benzimidazole 13% NaClAIS 3160.025–1TE at 24 °C40.42–71.44%[39]
AIS 10102.41–51.21%
2-(2-Pyridyl)benzimidazole 26NACE brine ID196API X60 steel2.56, 7.68TE at 30 °C FTIR; EIS46.0–67.3[40]
2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-1H- Benzo[d]Imidazole 6a3.5 wt % NaCl + CO2J55 steel0.176–1.407TE at 25 °C; WL at 60 °C; EIS; XPS56.8–94.7%[19]
2-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)-1H-Benzo[d] Imidazole 6b50.5–87.2%
2-(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl)-1H-Benzo[d] Imidazole 6c37.2–79.3%
Benzimidazole 11 M HClPure Fe1–50TE at 25 °C; EIS. AI47.58–51.07%[41]
2-Aminobenzimidazole 1070.64–78.28%
2-Hydroxybenzimidazole 4051.88–58.05%
2-(2-Pyridil)benzimidazole 2662.84–69.83%
2-Aminomethylbenzimidazole 211 M HClPure Fe1–50 60.77–68.24%[41]
2-Mercaptobenzimidazole 110.1 M HClAl1–100TE at 20-60 °C. AI60.1–80.9%[42]
5-Methylbenzimidazole-2-thiol 410.01–158.2–77.0%
5-Chlorobenzimidazole-2-thiol 420.01–147.4–78.3%
Benzimidazole 110% AcOH6061 Al-SiCp0.05–0.2TE at 30–50 °C13.29–58.56%[43]
20% AcOH17.05–64.58
30% AcOH10.29–58.90
2-Mercaptobenzimidazole 11Aerated 0.5 M HClCu0.5TE at 40 °C; WL at 40 °C; EIS91.6%[44]
2-Mercaptobenzimidazole 111 M HNO3Cu0.005–1WL at 25, 35 and 45 °C27.5–91.5%[45]
2-(methylthio)benzimidazole 4328.5–92.5%
2-{[(6-Nitro-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)imino]methyl}phenol(440.4 M NaCl + 0.1 M NaOHCu, brass1TE at 25 °C; EIS91.0; 97.4[46]
1-{[(6-Nitro-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)imino]methyl}naphthalen-2-ol 4571.0; 92.0
2-Mercaptobenzimidazole 110.1 M HClZn0.063–0.5TE at 30 °C; WL; AI; SEM68.5–89.7%[47]
Ethyl-2-(benzimidazol-2-yl-thio)acetate 470.063–0.575.2–93.0%
2-Hydroxybenzimidazole 400.063–0.557.4–85.3%
2-Hydroxy-5-nitro-benzimidazole 460.05–0.255.6–82.5%
  1. TE Tafel extrapolation, WL weight loss, EIS electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, MS mild steel, CS carbon steel, SS stainless steel, η inhibition effectiveness, EIS electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, CR corrosion rate, AI adsorbtion isotherm, SEM scanning electron microscopy, AFM atomic force microscopy, FTIR Fourier transform infrared, OP optical profilometry, XPS X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), MD molecular dynamics simulation, EDX energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, DFT Density Functional Theory
  2. aThe structures of the benzimidazoles are found in Figs. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11