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Table 2 Optimization of reaction conditions

From: Crosslinked sulfonated polyacrylamide (Cross-PAA-SO3H) tethered to nano-Fe3O4 as a superior catalyst for the synthesis of 1,3-thiazoles

Entry Solvent (reflux) Catalyst Time (min) Yield (%)a
1 EtOH 500 39
2 EtOH CAN (7 mol%) 250 53
3 EtOH NaHSO4 (5 mol%) 300 45
4 EtOH InCl3 (4 mol%) 200 56
5 EtOH ZrO2 (6 mol%) 250 60
6 EtOH p-TSA (3 mol%) 200 64
7 EtOH Nano-Fe3O4 (10 mg) 200 52
8 EtOH Cross-PAA-SO3H (10 mg) 150 56
9 EtOH nano-Fe3O4 (5 mg) + Cross-PAA-SO3H (5 mg) 150 60
10 H2O Cross-PAA-SO3H@nano-Fe3O4 (7 mg) 150 77
11 DMF Cross-PAA-SO3H@nano-Fe3O4 (7 mg) 150 82
12 CH3CN Cross-PAA-SO3H@nano-Fe3O4 (7 mg) 150 89
13 EtOH Cross-PAA-SO3H@nano-Fe3O4 (5 mg) 150 92
14 EtOH Cross-PAA-SO3H@nano-Fe3O4 (7 mg) 150 94
15 EtOH Cross-PAA-SO3H@nano-Fe3O4 (9 mg) 150 94
  1. Phenacyl bromide (1 mmol), carbon disulfide (1 mmol) and benzyl amine (1 mmol)
  2. aIsolated yield