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Table 2 The model study catalyzed in the presence of various catalysts

From: Green synthesis of spiro[indoline-3,4′-pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazoles] using Fe3O4@l-arginine as a robust and reusable catalyst

Entry Catalyst Catalyst loading (mol  %) Time (min) Yield(%)a
1 None 120 0
2 ZnO 15 120 35
3 CuI 15 120 42
4 MgO 15 100 65
5 Na2CO3 15 80 72
6 Et3N 15 60 70
7 Piperidine 15 80 55
8 Fe3O4 15 120 40
9 CaO 15 80 65
10 SiO2 15 120 35
11 Fe3O4@l-arginine 15 60 96
12 Fe3O4@l-arginine 10 60 96
13 Fe3O4@l-arginine 8 60 96
14 Fe3O4@l-arginine 5 90 70
  1. Reaction conditions: hydrazine monohydrate (1 mmol), isatin (1 mmol), ethyl acetoacetate (1 mmol) and malononitrile (1 mmol) under solvent-free at room temperature
  2. aIsolated yields