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Table 1 The effect of solvents on the model reaction in the presence of Fe3O4@l-arginine

From: Green synthesis of spiro[indoline-3,4′-pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazoles] using Fe3O4@l-arginine as a robust and reusable catalyst

Entry Solvent Time (min) Yield (%)a
1 EtOH (reflux) 70 60
2 DMF (reflux) 120 50
3 H2O (reflux) 130 35
4 CH3CN (reflux) 120 45
5 Toluene (reflux) 240 25
6 Solvent-free (r.t.) 60 96
7 Solvent-free (40 °C) 60 95
8 Solvent-free (80 °C) 60 96
  1. Reaction conditions: hydrazine monohydrate, isatin, ethyl acetoacetate, malononitrile (molar ratio: 1:1: 1.2:1) using (0.01 g) of Fe3O4@l-arginine
  2. aIsolated yields