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Table 2 Types of lettuce cultivars and contents of individual phenolic acids and flavonoids at mature and bolting stages

From: Identification and quantification of selected metabolites in differently pigmented leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars harvested at mature and bolting stages

S/No Cultivar Cultivar type Leaf color 3-CQA 5-CQA 5-FQA
Mature stage Bolting stage Mature stage Bolting stage Mature stage Bolting stage
1 Adam Crisphead Green 3.99 ± 0.05f 2.51 ± 0.04b 0.87 ± 0.04a 9.85 ± 0.06abc 9.85 ± 0.06abc 1.79 ± 0.04cde
2 Pungseong Crisphead Green 4.4 ± 0.7fg 1.72 ± 0.02a 2.6 ± 0.3def 10.6 ± 1.6bcde 10.6 ± 1.6bcde 1.62 ± 0.02bcd
3 Jeokhagye Leaf Green/red 3.22 ± 0.04e 3.9 ± 0.2h 3.17 ± 0.04gh 17.6 ± 0.2ij 17.6 ± 0.2ij 4.4 ± 0.3j
4 Jeoksagye Leaf Green/red 4.8 ± 0.1ghi 4.4 ± 0.1i 1.84 ± 0.06bc 15.9 ± 0.5hi 15.9 ± 0.5hi 4.5 ± 0.3j
5 Cheonsang Romaine Green 5.1 ± 0.2i 5.6 ± 0.4k 0.70 ± 0.03a 9.4 ± 0.3abc 9.4 ± 0.3abc 0.59 ± 0.04a
6 Mansang Romaine Green 4.57 ± 0.02gh 3.37 ± 0.06ef 0.84 ± 0.00a 13.61 ± 0.04g 13.61 ± 0.04g 1.03 ± 0.03ab
7 Hacheong Leaf Green 4.80 ± 0.07ghi 6.2 ± 0.3l 1.60 ± 0.02b 18.9 ± 0.2j 18.9 ± 0.2j 1.2 ± 0.1bc
8 Jeokdan Leaf Green/red 5.00 ± 0.04hi 5.57 ± 0.03k 2.30 ± 0.02cde 16.6 ± 0.1i 16.6 ± 0.1i 2.87 ± 0.03h
9 Jangsu Leaf Green/red 1.90 ± 0.05b 3.6 ± 0.1fg 3.68 ± 0.09ij 10.4 ± 0.3bcd 10.4 ± 0.3bcd 2.8 ± 0.1fgh
10 Gopungjeokchukmyeon Leaf Green/red 2.04 ± 0.02bc 3.05 ± 0.06cd 3.49 ± 0.05hi 12.8 ± 0.2efg 12.8 ± 0.2efg 2.73 ± 0.06fgh
11 Mihong Leaf Red 2.55 ± 0.04cd 3.41 ± 0.08ef 2.2 ± 0.2cd 14.4 ± 1.7gh 14.4 ± 1.7gh 2.18 ± 0.06def
12 Chunpungjeokchukmyeon Leaf Green/red 1.34 ± 0.07a 2.51 ± 0.06b 5.2 ± 0.6l 8.3 ± 0.8ab 8.3 ± 0.8ab 2.65 ± 0.06fgh
13 Gohong Leaf Red 1.88 ± 0.01b 5.03 ± 0.07j 3.11 ± 0.06fgh 11.1 ± 0.2cdef 11.1 ± 0.2cdef 2.32 ± 0.03efgh
14 Miseonjeokchukmyeon Leaf Red 2.21 ± 0.03bcd 4.56 ± 0.05i 2.76 ± 0.06efg 13.3 ± 0.2fg 13.3 ± 0.2fg 3.98 ± 0.01ij
15 Sunredbutter Butterhead Green/red 3.22 ± 0.02e 5.55 ± 0.09k 1.38 ± 0.01b 14.0 ± 0.1gh 14.0 ± 0.1gh 1.45 ± 0.02bc
16 Hyeseonmanchudae Leaf Green/red 2.50 ± 0.05cd 5.04 ± 0.04j 4.04 ± 0.07j 12.6 ± 0.2defg 12.6 ± 0.2defg 2.81 ± 0.02gh
17 Sambokhacheong Leaf Green 2.30 ± 0.02bcd 2.28 ± 0.00b 2.51 ± 0.01de 9.4 ± 0.3abc 9.4 ± 0.3abc 1.75 ± 0.00cde
18 Chunhachujeokchima Leaf Red 1.91 ± 0.02b 2.96 ± 0.04c 2.46 ± 0.06de 9.4 ± 0.3abc 9.4 ± 0.3abc 1.45 ± 0.04bc
19 Yelpungjeokchima Leaf Green/red 2.7 ± 0.2d 3.9 ± 0.2gh 2.7 ± 0.2efg 11.0 ± 0.6cde 11.0 ± 0.6cde 3.8 ± 0.2i
20 Superseonpung Leaf Red 2.5 ± 0.5cd 3.3 ± 0.3de 4.6 ± 0.1k 12.8 ± 0.7efg 12.8 ± 0.7efg 5.2 ± 0.8k
21 Tomalin Leaf Red 1.3 ± 0.3a 2.4 ± 0.4b 4.0 ± 0.5ij 7.7 ± 0.8a 7.7 ± 0.8a 2.2 ± 0.4efg
22 Cheongchima Leaf Green 2.7 ± 0.4d 4.6 ± 0.6i 1.9 ± 0.2bc 7.8 ± 1.1a 7.8 ± 1.1a 1.4 ± 0.2bc
  1. Results are expressed as mg/100 g DW
  2. Values are Mean  ±  standard deviation of biological triplicates. Different letters between rows indicate statistically significant differences at p  < 0 0.05
  3. S/No sample number, 3-CQA 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-CQA 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-FQA feruloylquinic acid, DCTA dicaffeoyltartaric acid, KGR kaempferol glucuronide, QMG quercetin malonylglucoside, DCQA dicaffeoylquinic acid, KMG kaempferol malonylglucoside, MKGR methylkaempferol glucuronide, ND not detected
S/No DCTA KGR QMG KMG MKGR
Mature stage Bolting stage Mature stage Bolting stage Mature stage Bolting stage Mature stage Bolting stage Mature stage Bolting stage
1 9.85 ± 0.06abc 5.9 ± 0.2a 5.4 ± 0.8ab 3.0 ± 0.2a 1.6 ± 0.2a 16.1 ± 0.4d 0.56 ± 0.08ab 1.73 ± 0.04f 1.7 ± 0.9a 5.3 ± 0.9ef
2 10.6 ± 1.6bcde 5.51 ± 0.08a 6.5 ± 1.0bc 3.2 ± 0.1a 3.6 ± 0.6b 20.7 ± 0.3e 0.68 ± 0.08b 1.45 ± 0.01de 2.6 ± 2.08bc 4.0 ± 0.2cdef
3 17.6 ± 0.2ij 13.5 ± 0.7gh 12.1 ± 0.2f 8.1 ± 0.4gh ND 28.2 ± 1.8gh 1.30 ± 0.01ef 1.88 ± 0.08f 7.5 ± 0.4m 11.5 ± 3.2i
4 15.9 ± 0.5hi 10.2 ± 0.3e 11.8 ± 0.4f 5.4 ± 0.1cd ND 24.5 ± 0.8f 1.16 ± 0.03def 2.4 ± 0.1g 3.7 ± 0.6efg 10.4 ± 1.9hi
5 9.4 ± 0.3abc 13.9 ± 0.8ghi 4.3 ± 0.2a 8.7 ± 0.5h 6.2 ± 0.3d 3.1 ± 0.2a 1.63 ± 0.06g 0.65 ± 0.03a 1.4 ± 0.4a 2.8 ± 1.0abcd
6 13.61 ± 0.04g 8.2 ± 0.1c 8.58 ± 0.02de 5.30 ± 0.08cd 4.65 ± 0.02bc 18.4 ± 2.0de 1.15 ± 0.01def 1.31 ± 0.02bcd 2.4 ± 0.07b 2.1 ± 0.2abc
7 18.9 ± 0.2j 14.4 ± 0.6hij 12.8 ± 0.3f 7.6 ± 0.4fgh ND 17.5 ± 1.6d 0.94 ± 0.01cd 1.21 ± 0.05b 5.8 ± 0.4l 5.9 ± 1.3f
8 16.6 ± 0.1i 11.8 ± 0.2f 12.3 ± 0.9f 7.5 ± 0.1fg ND 18.2 ± 0.2d 1.24 ± 0.02ef 2.35 ± 0.02g 3.00 ± 0.05bcde 8.0 ± 0.5g
9 10.4 ± 0.3bcd 15.2 ± 0.6jk 6.6 ± 0.2bc 8.7 ± 0.4h 5.6 ± 0.2cd 35.2 ± 1.1i 1.20 ± 0.03ef 1.45 ± 0.05de 4.9 ± 0.7jk 9.2 ± 1.7gh
10 12.8 ± 0.2efg 11.6 ± 0.2f 8.3 ± 0.1de 5.9 ± 0.1cde 9.8 ± 0.1fgh 42.5 ± 0.7k 1.70 ± 0.02g 1.82 ± 0.02f 5.5 ± 0.4kl 4.1 ± 1.2cdef
11 14.4 ± 1.7gh 11.3 ± 0.5f 8.9 ± 0.9de 5.8 ± 0.3cd 5.9 ± 0.9cd 46.5 ± 1.4l 1.4 ± 0.1f 1.87 ± 0.02f 4.9 ± 1.2jk 4.8 ± 0.8def
12 8.3 ± 0.8ab 11.8 ± 0.3f 5.8 ± 0.7bc 6.0 ± 0.2cde 9.6 ± 1.4fg 28.7 ± 0.7h 1.67 ± 0.13g 1.87 ± 0.04f 4.5 ± 2.5hij 3.4 ± 0.4abcde
13 11.1 ± 0.2cdef 18.6 ± 0.2l 7.4 ± 0.2cde 8.3 ± 0.1gh 10.2 ± 0.3gh 26.0 ± 0.4fg 1.69 ± 0.01g 2.24 ± 0.02g 4.8 ± 0.4ijk 4.4 ± 0.2def
14 13.3 ± 0.2fg 13.1 ± 0.2g 9.0 ± 0.1e 8.5 ± 0.1gh 7.9 ± 0.1e 40.6 ± 0.4k 1.26 ± 0.01ef 1.38 ± 0.02cde 4.7 ± 0.4ij 10.7 ± 0.3hi
15 14.0 ± 0.1gh 13.6 ± 0.1gh 8.17 ± 0.09de 6.42 ± 0.07de 8.52 ± 0.08ef 12.4 ± 0.2c 0.91 ± 0.01c 0.65 ± 0.01a 2.90 ± 0.09bcd 1.7 ± 0.1ab
16 12.6 ± 0.2defg 15.4 ± 0.1k 8.6 ± 0.2de 8.15 ± 0.08gh 5.3 ± 0.1cd 38.1 ± 0.2j 1.14 ± 0.02def 1.28 ± 0.02bc 4.1 ± 0.4ghi 10.1 ± 0.5hi
17 9.4 ± 0.3abc 7.79 ± 0.02bc 6.5 ± 0.2bc 4.85 ± 0.02bc 2.38 ± 0.03a 29.8 ± 0.2h 0.65 ± 0.01b 0.56 ± 0.00a 3.7 ± 0.2efg 3.6 ± 2.0abcde
18 9.4 ± 0.3abc 11.5 ± 0.2f 6.5 ± 0.3bc 5.62 ± 0.07cd 4.5 ± 0.2bc 16.3 ± 0.3d 1.07 ± 0.01cde 1.48 ± 0.01e 3.2 ± 0.3cdef 3.7 ± 0.4bcde
19 11 ± 0.6cde 14.7 ± 0.8ijk 7.3 ± 0.5cd 7.0 ± 1.3ef 5.0 ± 0.3cd 45.0 ± 3.0l 0.89 ± 0.03c 1.37 ± 0.07cde 4.5 ± 1.4hij 13.9 ± 5.7k
20 12.8 ± 0.7efg 7.0 ± 1.0b 9.0 ± 0.2e 3.00 ± 0.08a 9.7 ± 0.2fgh 28.9 ± 1.6h 1.6 ± 0.2g 2.720.3h 5.5 ± 1.2kl 11.2 ± 6.6hi
21 7.7 ± 0.8a 10.9 ± 1.5ef 5.9 ± 0.5bc 3.9 ± 0.3ab 11.0 ± 1.2h 67.2 ± 4.1m 1.82 ± 0.04g 2.3 ± 0.1g 3.9 ± 0.7fgh 9.6 ± 1.6ghi
22 7.8 ± 1.1a 9.2 ± 1.1d 5.3 ± 0.4ab 5.0 ± 0.6c 1.67 ± 0.01a 7.8 ± 1.2b 0.39 ± 0.06a 0.51 ± 0.05a 3.4 ± 0.9def 1.6 ± 1.1a
  1. Results are expressed as mg/100 g DW
  2. Values are Mean  ±  standard deviation of biological triplicates. Different letters between rows indicate statistically significant differences at p  < 0 0.05
  3. S/No sample number, 3-CQA 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-CQA 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-FQA feruloylquinic acid, DCTA dicaffeoyltartaric acid, KGR kaempferol glucuronide, QMG quercetin malonylglucoside, DCQA dicaffeoylquinic acid, KMG kaempferol malonylglucoside, MKGR methylkaempferol glucuronide, ND not detected