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Table 1 Study population characteristics and hormonal concentrations

From: Evaluating urinary estrogen and progesterone metabolites using dried filter paper samples and gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC–MS/MS)

Variable Primary study: serum versus dried urinec Secondary studiesd
All Premenopausal Postmenopausal All Female Male
Age (mean ± SD) 50.1 ± 19.2 24.8 ± 5.6 62.8 ± 3.9 36.8 ± 14.5 33.7 ± 7.8 37.8 ± 18
Group size N = 12 N = 4 N = 8 N = 26 N = 15 N = 11
Race 11 Caucasian 1 Hispanic 3 Caucasian 1 Hispanic Caucasian Caucasian Caucasian Caucasian
Serum Estradiol (pg/ml) 15.38 (7.84, 91.90) 129.21 (103.00, 147.53) 9.37 (6.69, 15.38)a N/A N/A N/A
Urinary Estradiol (ng/mg-Cr) 0.39 (0.11, 1.87) 3.02 (2.19, 3.72) 0.18 (0.04, 0.39)b 1.68 (0.92, 3.81) 3.34 (0.85, 4.92) b 1.22 (0.92, 1.64)
Urinary Estrone (ng/mg-Cr) 7.5 (2.7, 13.4) 17.0 (14.5, 17.7) 3.8 (1.7, 7.5)a 14.4 (7.1, 18.8) 18.6 (6.7, 25.4) 9.2 (7.1, 14.4)
Serum Progesterone (ng/ml) 0.24 (0.08, 1.57) 2.79 (1.54, 5.15) 0.12 (0.07, 0.54) N/A N/A N/A
Urinary αPg (ng/mg-Cr) 21.3 (13.5, 49.5) 77.1 (53.1, 142.5) 14.1 (12.8, 26.1) 60.9 (29.7, 242.0) 133.3 (18.8, 329.5) 51.4 (29.7, 93.1)
Urinary βPg (ng/mg-Cr) 97.9 (58.5, 174.0) 282.6 (197.9, 445.3) 80.0 (41.3, 97.9) 204.3 (113.5, 466.6) 205.8 (113.5, 1733.1) 197.8 (80.3, 354.4)
  1. Hormone data presented as median (IQR). Urine values are from the dried urine assay
  2. Cr, creatinine; αPg, 5α-pregnanediol; βPg: 5β-pregnanediol
  3. ap < 0.01
  4. bp < 0.05 for differences between groups (pre- versus post-menopausal women or males versus females), as assessed with mixed models for the primary study and Wilcoxon and Mann–Whitney tests for the secondary studies
  5. cAll calculations of hormonal measures account for repeated measures within the premenopausal individuals using mixed models
  6. dOf the 26 individuals (15 females, 11 males) who participated in the comparison of the 4-spot versus 24-h urine assays, 18 individuals (10 females, 8 males) were used to assess comparability of dried versus liquid urine samples