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Table 3 Levels of coumarin in tobacco and tobacco products

From: Analysis of coumarin and angelica lactones in smokeless tobacco products

Tobacco type or product Country Samples with coumarin/total samples Level (ng/g) Comments References
Flue-cured Brazil, Malawi, Zimbabwe, US 11/12 < LOD-900 Results on DWB, LOD 50 ng/g Christakopoulos et al. [17]
Air-cured Poland, Italy, Zimbabwe, US 6/8 250–1300
Sun-cured Greece, Turkey 1/2 < LOD-250
Fire-cured Poland, US 6/6 1600–4200
Burley US 1/1 600 Result on WWB (9% water) Fujimori et al. [18]
Zarda SE Asia 2 3.8 × 105, 4.4 × 105 Results on WWB LOD 380 ng/g Lisko et al. [30]
Qiwam SE Asia   1.9 × 105
Snuff US 0/2 < LOD
Clove cigarette filler US 1/2 < LOD-4600
Cigarette filler US 1/68 < LOD-390 Results on WWB LOD 13 ng/g Stanfill and Ashley [20]
Bidi filler India (from US market) 1/17 < LOD-3.6 × 103 Results on WWB LOD 200 ng/g Stanfill et al. [32]
Rapé snuff Brazil 9/11 tobacco containing < LOD-2.8 × 106 Results on WWB Several contained tonka bean Stanfill et al. [31]
2/2 non-tobacco 5.8 × 106 − 1.7 × 107