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Table 2 Detected aroma compounds with retention index and mean concentration (µg/kg fresh fruit) found in each pineapple varieties grown in Malaysia

From: Classification of different pineapple varieties grown in Malaysia based on volatile fingerprinting and sensory analysis

No Compounda Aroma-qualityb Moris Maspine MD2 N36 Josapine Sarawak RI on TG-5 ms
C1 Methyl-2-methylbutanoate Apple-like 103 ± 8.5 771 [770] [31]
C2 2-Hexanol Winey 2.1 ± 0.0 1.0 ± 0.0 780 [786] [32]
C3 3-Methylbutanoic acid Cheesy 21.0 ± 1.5 792
C4 Methyl butyl acetate Banana 8.0 ± 1.0 812
C5 Methyl-2-methylpentanoate Fruity 7.3 ± 1.2 6.7 ± 0.1 823 [nf]
C6 Gamma-butyrolactone Milky 3.0 ± 0.1 837
C7 Dimethyl malonate Fruity 48.2 ± 3.5 2.0 ± 0.0 2.0 ± 0.0 843 [nf]
C8 Ethyl-2,3-dimethylbutanoate Fruity 1.5 ± 0.0 856 [856] [32]
C9 Methyl-2-methyl acetoacetate Fruity 156.1 ± 12.0 13.0 ± 1.5 868 [nf]
C10 Methyl-2/3-hydroxy-2/3-methylbutanoate Fruity 86.0 ± 6.5 7.0 ± 0.1 877
C11 Methyl hexanoate Fruity 397 ± 15.0 tr 44.0 ± 2.1 19.0 ± 0.1 tr 32.0 ± 1.0 884
C12 Ethyl isohexanoate Pineapple 13.0 ± 1.0 920
C13 Methyl-2-methylhexanoate Fruity 8.0 ± 0.1 931
C14 Methyl-3-(methylthiol)-propanoate Sulphurous 307 ± 9.7 28.7 ± 1.0 17.0 ± 0.1 936
C15 Hexanoic acid Fatty 12.4 ± 0.1 974 [975] [32]
C16 (E)-β-Ocimene Sweet/herbal 4.0 ± 0.0 1.0 ± 0.0 2.0 ± 0.0 1.0 ± 0.0 976
C17 Methyl-3-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate Fruity 65.0 ± 5.6 983
C18 Ethyl hexanoate Fruity 13.0 ± 1.2 1.0 ± 0.0 984 [1002] [32]
C19 Gamma-lactone Creamy 202.0 ± 9.7 11.0 ± 0.1 5.0 ± 0.1 986 [986] [32]
C20 Delta-lactone ND 221 ± 11.0 15.1 ± 1.2 9.0 ± 0.1 5.6 ± 0.1 1006
C21 2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone Strawberry 55.0 ± 3.4 9.0 ± 1.0 1.5 ± 0.0 1.2 ± 0.0 54.2 ± 2.0 6.0 ± 0.1 1022
C22 Methyl-3-hydroxyhexanoate Fruity 11.2 ± 0.1 1047
C23 2,5-Dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone Roasty/sweet 7.4 ± 0.1 1055
C24 Methyl octanoate Fruity 101.0 ± 8.0 3.0 ± 0.0 4.0 ± 0.1 1083
C25 Methyl (4E)-4-octenoate Fruity 30.0 ± 3.0 1091
C26 3-Octyl acetate* Herbal/green 2.0 ± 0.0 1118 [1119] [32]
C27 2,4-Dihydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone Fruity 2.0 ± 0.0 3.2 ± 0.1 4.3 ± 0.1 1173
C28 Octanoic acid Rancid 5.0 ± 0.1 2.0 ± 0.0 2.1 ± 0.0 1174
C29 Gamma-octalactone Coconut-like 86.2 ± 4.0 1184
C30 Delta-octalactone Creamy 11.0 ± 1.5 3.5 ± 0.0 3.0 ± 0.1 11.0 ± 0.1 7.0 ± 0.1 1205
C31 Copaene Woody 40.1 ± 3.9 12.0 ± 1.2 3.0 ± 0.1 1221
C32 Methyl decanoate Floral 4.0 ± 0.1 1282
C33 2-Methoxy-4-vinyl phenol Smoky 4.0 ± 0.1 2.0 ± 0.0 18.0 ± 1.0 1293
C34 Decanoic acid Sweaty 2.0 ± 0.0 2.0 ± 0.0 2.0 ± 0.0 1372
C35 Methyl-5-acetoxy octanoate Wine-like 5.0 ± 0.1 1385
C36 gamma-Farnesene ND 2.7 ± 0.0 1453
C37 Delta-undecalactone* Coconut-like 2.0 ± 0.1 4.1 ± 0.1 1483 [1488] [33]
C38 Germacrene Woody 1.0 ± 0.0 1515 [1502] [33]
C39 Globulol Floral 2.0 ± 0.1 1530
C40 (-)-Spathulenol Earthy 19.0 ± 1.0 8.0 ± 1.5 1536
C41 Dodecanoic acid Sweaty/soapy 7.0 ± 0.1 3.0 ± 0.1 1570
C42 Gamma-dodecalactone Fruity 1.0 ± 0.0 1582 [1587] [32]
C43 (Z)-7-Tetradecenal ND 1139 ± 34.0 1609
C44 Pentadecanal* Fresh/waxy 18.1 ± 1.0 4.0 ± 0.1 1701 [1712] [36]
C45 3,5-Dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamaldehyde Cocoa-like 3.0 ± 0.1 1788
C46 Pentadecanoic acid Waxy 3.0 ± 0.1 2.0 ± 0.0 1.0 ± 0.0 1869
C47 Methylhexadecanoate* Waxy 2.6 ± 0.0 1.0 ± 0.0 1878[1878] [32]
C48 Methyl-(2E)-2-hexadecenoate ND 8.0 ± 0.1 1886
C49 Ethyl hexadecanoate Waxy 4.0 ± 0.1 1.0 ± 0.0 1928
C50 Hexadecanoic acid* Waxy 51.7 ± 3.2 255.0 ± 9.0 5.0 ± 0.1 393.0 ± 11.2 2.0 ± 0.0 1968 [1970] [32]
C51 9-Hexadecenoic acid Waxy 2.0 ± 0.0 1976
C52 Octadecanal Fatty/greasy 21.0 ± 1.5 1999 [2002] [32]
C53 Eicosane ND 105.1 ± 9.0 2.0 ± 0.0 14.0 ± 2.0 2.0 ± 0.0 16.0 ± 1.0 2009
C54 Heptadecanoic acid* Waxy 4.0 ± 0.1 3.0 ± 0.1 2067 [2067] [32]
C55 Octadecanoic acid* Pungent 149.0 ± 9.0 1.0 ± 0.0 69.0 ± 5.1 89.0 ± 7.0 2167 [2167] [32]
C56 Ethyl octadecanoate* Waxy 46.0 ± 3.0 2.0 ± 0.0 2177 [2174] [33]
C57 (Z,Z)-9,12-Octadecadienoic acid* Waxy 37.0 ± 2.1 37.0 ± 4.0 16.0 ± 1.5 2183 [2183] [36]
C58 Ethyl oleate* Fatty 89.0 ± 6.5 57.0 ± 2.0 2185 [2180] [32]
C59 Geranyl geraniol Floral 11.0 ± 0.1 2192
  1. – Odorant not detected
  2. ND not detectable
  3. tr Trace (< 1.0 µg/kg), [RIlit]35; Scheidig et al. [31], [RIlit]36; NIST [32], [RIlit]37; El-Sayad [33]
  4. aCompounds were identified by comparing their retention indices on the TG-5 ms column, their mass spectra, and odour nuances with the respective data of the reference odorants
  5. bAroma-quality perceived by panellists during olfactometry
  6. * Compounds tentatively identified with the MS database and retention index