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Table 1 Optimization of the reaction conditions (catalyst loading, solvent and temperature) for the synthesis of 4a

From: Magnetic core–shell Carrageenan moss/Fe3O4: a polysaccharide-based metallic nanoparticles for synthesis of pyrimidinone derivatives via Biginelli reaction

Entry Condition/solvent Catalyst (mg) Temp (°C) Time (min) Yield (%)
1 H2O 0 100 180 Trace
2 H2O 10 100 90 87
3 H2O 10 25 360 64
4 SF 10 50 240 70
5 Ultrasound/H2O 10 25b 90 85
6 EtOH 10 78 120 73
7 DMF 10 153 180 67
8 EtOAC 10 77 150 80
9 CHCl2 10 61 240 63
10 Toluene 10 111 270 65
11* H 2 O 20 100 60 95
12 Ultrasound/H2O 20 25 60 75
13 H2O 30 100 60 95
14a H2O NMCM (10) 100 110 90
  1. *Optimum reaction conditions
  2. aThe reaction was catalyzed by 10 mg of non-magnetic Carrageenan moss
  3. bThe temperature was kept at 25 °C using a water bath