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Table 2 Correlations between ethyl carbamate and STP constituents

From: Ethyl carbamate in Swedish and American smokeless tobacco products and some factors affecting its concentration

  Pearson correlation coefficient, R, and p value
All values included Values < LOD excluded
All brands
 Karl Fisher water 0.285 (0.013) 0.223 (0.236)
All brands except US snus
 Karl Fisher water 0.274 (0.022) 0.223 (0.236)
 Water activity 0.167 (0.167) − 0.058 (0.762)
 pH 0.125 (0.301) − 0.222 (0.237)
 Total nicotine alkaloids 0.087 (0.475) 0.270 (0.149)
 Nicotine 0.131 (0.278) 0.219 (0.245)
 Reducing sugars − 0.167 (0.167) − 0.188 (0.319)
 Total sugars − 0.176 (0.146) − 0.189 (0.317)
 Nitrate 0.029 (0.821) 0.641 (0.000)
 Propylene glycol − 0.169 (0.182) − 0.621 (0.001)
 Glycerol − 0.341 (0.006) − 0.329 (0.101)
 Ammonia nitrogen 0.455 (0.000) 0.701 (0.000)
 Chloride ion 0.368 (0.002) 0.348 (0.060)
 Sodium ion 0.365 (0.002) 0.423 (0.020)
  1. Correlations were calculated from wet weight basis concentrations
  2. In the first column R was calculated by assigning a value of 10 ng/g to ethyl carbamate for values < LOD. In the second column R was calculated by excluding all values < LOD for ethyl carbamate
  3. LOD limit of detection