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Table 2 Binding parameters for the interaction between active components in TCMs and plasma proteins

From: Study on the interaction between active components from traditional Chinese medicine and plasma proteins

Type Compounds Protein K (M−1) Stoichiometry (n) Quenching mechanism Binding site r (nm) Driving force References
  Flavone BSA 2.139 × 104 2.26   IIA   a, b [91]
  Rutin HSA 3.8 × 104 1.43 Static IIA   a, b [167]
  Quercitrin BSA 4.13 × 103 2.32   IIA   b, c [91]
  Kaempferol HSA 2.89 × 105 0.65 Static IIA 2.7 c [124]
  (+)-catechin BSA 1.565 × 104 2.17 Static IIA   a, b [162]
  Loureirin A HSA 1.291 × 105 0.88 Static IIA 2.66 c, d [168]
  Cochinchinenin C HSA 2.532 × 105 0.78 Static IIA 2.975 c, d [168]
  Hesperitin HSA 1.29 × 105 1.03 Static IIA 1.978 a, c [123]
  Diosmetin HSA 1.18 × 105 0.84 Static IIA 3.54 a, c [136]
  Apigenin BSA 6.978 × 106 1.266 Static IIA 1.89 a, c [169]
   HSA 9.83 × 104 0.8774 Static IIA 3.21 a, b [138]
  Farrerol HSA 4.76 × 105 0.46 Static IIA 2.63 a, c [170]
  Baicalein HSA 1.73 × 105   Static IIA 2.04 a, c [171]
Flavonoids Delphinidin-3-O-glucoside BSA 1.98 × 105 1.100 Static IIA 2.81 c, d [116]
   HSA 1.443 × 105 1.082   IIA 2.34 a [135]
  Pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside HSA 6.89 × 104 0.995 Static, dynamic IIA 2.83 c, d [135]
   BSA 1.21 × 105 1.057 Static IIA 2.74 b [172]
  Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside HSA 1.096 × 105 1.042 Static, dynamic IIA 2.58 b [135]
  Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone HSA 2.79 × 104 1.02 Static IIA   c, d [117]
  Icariin HSA 3.0335 × 104 1.0282 Static IIA 2.5 c, d [133]
  Guaijaverin HSA 2.02 × 105 1.121 Static IIA 2.527 a, b, c [173]
  Mangiferin BSA 3.18 × 104 1.16 Static IIA   a, c [154]
  Berberine BSA 7.75 × 104 0.92 Static IIA   b, c, d [174]
  Palmatine BSA 7.11 × 104 1.17 Static IIA   b, c, d [174]
  Paclitaxel HSA 3.241 × 102 0.93 Static IIA 2.23 a [119]
Alkaloids Tetrandrine BSA 1.06 × 106 1.17 Static, dynamic IIA 1.455 a, b [120]
   HSA 1.59 × 106 1.21 Static, dynamic IIA 1.451 a [120]
  Brucine BSA 3.47 × 105 1.04 Static IIA 5.08 a, b [175]
Triterpenes Glycyrrhetinic acid HSA K1 = 1.65 × 105 K2 = 0.458 × 105 N1 = 0.43 N2 = 0.73 Static IIA   1. c 2. a [121]
  Trans-feruloyl maslinic acid HSA 1.42 × 108 0.6   IB    [129]
Phenyl-propanolds Ferulic acid HSA 7.87 × 103   Static IIIA   c [118]
  Caffeic acid BSA 4.264 × 105 1.173 Static   1.86 c [118]
  Chlorogenic acid HSA 3.004 × 104 1.14 Static Site I 3.10 b [176]
  Paeonol HSA 4.84 × 103    IIIA   c, d [85]
  Curcumin HSA 1.80 × 105 1.14 Static IIA   c, d [144]
Other phenolic substances Salicylic acid BSA 5.60 × 103 1.85     c, d [79]
  N-trans-p-coumaroyltyramine HSA 4.5 × 105 1.538   IIA   a [128]
  Syringin HSA 2.97 × 104 1.336 Static, dynamic IIA 3.15 a [121]
  1. K is equilibrium binding constant. Stoichiometry (N) is the number of binding sites considered for the fit. r is the distance between the Trp residue of HSA and the acceptor molecule. Driving force is noncovalent interactions between drugs and biological macromolecules, and a is hydrophobic interaction, b is electrostatic interaction, c is hydrogen bonds and d is van der Walls force