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Table 1 Variation in HMF concentration in honey samples based on their storage time and geographical sources

From: 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) levels in honey and other food products: effects on bees and human health

Country Storage time Storage temperature (°C) HMF concentration (mg/kg) References
Asia
 Bangladesh > 1.5 years 20–25 3.18–703.10 [76]
 India Fresh 0.15–1.70 [160]
 Malaysia (year) < 1 4–5 0.26–68.99 [108]
> 1 25–30 206.06–383.39 [81]
> 2 25–30 986.57–1131.76
 Nepal 25–29 30.36–56.10 [131]
 Pakistan 4–5 ND–6.00 [3]
23.18–27.37 [74]
 Iran 0.04–17.20 [104]
 Turkey Fresh 0.00–11.50 [188]
< 6 months 19.20–28.6 [91]
1 year 20 ± 5 8.60–39.00 [188]
Europe
 Italy Fresh 1.23–5.95 [47]
 Croatia 0.00–23.69 [173]
 Czech Republic 4 years 20 ± 2 10.30–44.20 [80]
 Poland 0.70–3.50 [89]
 Portugal Room temperature 18.00–94.00 [66]
 Spain < 3 years 0.00–21.39 [116]
 Northwest Spain < 2 years − 30 0.00–1.60 [120]
 Switzerland < 7 years 4 0.00–112.00 [148]
Africa
 Algeria < 1 year 4–6 1.73–480.00 [36, 82]
 Burkina Faso < 1 year 0–4 3.00–27.50 [103]
 Ethiopia < 6 months 0.68–6.56 [25, 85]
 Kenya < 1 year 25 ± 2 3.70–389.36 [112]
 Morocco 4 3.20–52.60 [169]
 Nigeria < 6 months 0.66–1.43 [16]
 Tanzania 5.00–26.40 [115]
South America
 Argentina 23 ± 2 0.05–2.94 [21]
Within 2 months 1.48–34.08 [34]
 Argentinean Patagonia > 3 years 0.00–14.70 [8]
 Brazil 1.50–115.20 [5, 162]
North America
 Cuba < 1 year 4 3.30–15.90 [9]
 Mexico Room temperature 9.01–21.96 [106]
Australia
 Australia 2 years − 18 1.30–12.40 [71]
  1. ND not detected, HMF 5-hydroxymethylfurfural