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Table 2 Identified free, bound and total individual phenolics and flavonoids from black, red and brown rice bran

From: Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity, and antiproliferative properties of black, red, and brown rice bran

Rice bran Black (RB218) Red (RP511) Brown (IR425)
Phenolic acids and flavonoids Free Bound Total Free Bound Total Free Bound Total
Protocatechuic acid 6.18a ± 0.78 ND 6.18a ± 0.63 5.31b ± 0.74 ND 5.31b ± 0.67 2.87c ± 0.59 ND 2.87c ± 0.39
Syringic acid 17.50c ± 1.20 6.90f ± 0.91 24.40a ± 1.59 15.25d ± 1.27 6.25f ± 0.57 21.50b ± 1.65 11.26e ± 0.72 3.16g ± 0.55 14.42d ± 1.15
Ferulic acid 7.46f ± 0.88 20.58c ± 1.46 28.04a ± 1.80 5.27 g ± 0.86 18.56d ± 1.06 23.83b ± 1.89 3.51 h ± 0.73 14.28e ± 1.01 17.79d ± 1.37
Cinnamic acid 19.98b ± 1.38 5.55e ± 0.69 25.53a ± 1.92 15.33c ± 1.19 ND 15.33c ± 1.09 9.61d ± 0.92 ND 9.61d ± 0.84
p-coumaric acid 10.41d ± 1.04 22.94b ± 1.84 33.35a ± 2.06 6.18e ± 0.79 18.35c ± 1.11 24.53b ± 1.53 4.08e ± 0.58 12.63d ± 0.96 16.71c ± 1.18
Quercetin 11.89b ± 0.98 3.66e ± 0.21 15.55a ± 1.20 8.10d ± 0.94 1.17g ± 0.24 9.27c ± 1.04 2.71f ± 0.66 0.16h ± 0.02 2.87f ± 0.36
Apigenin 12.56b ± 1.47 2.75f ± 0.18 15.31a ± 1.07 5.508 ± 0.68 0.81g ± 0.09 6.39c ± 0.88 3.48e ± 0.61 0.74g ± 0.12 4.22d ± 0.44
Catechin 15.64b ± 1.16 6.41f ± 0.80 22.05a ± 1.32 12.66c ± 0.92 3.24g ± 0.46 15.90b ± 1.02 7.27e ± 0.79 1.69h ± 0.25 8.96d ± 0.89
Luteolin 10.72a ± 0.81 ND 10.72a ± 0.91 7.74b ± 0.81 ND 7.74b ± 0.82 2.35c ± 0.24 ND 2.35c ± 0.30
Myrecitin 12.85a ± 1.15 ND 12.85a ± 0.88 12.82a ± 0.90 ND 12.82a ± 0.94 5.68b ± 0.38 ND 5.68b ± 0.72
  1. Data are means of triplicate measurements ± standard deviation. Means not sharing a common single letter in each row for each measurement were significantly different at p < 0.05
  2. ND not detected