Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Summary of current findings in contemporary STPs and historic values for radionuclides of the thorium decay series and for potassium-40 and cosmic ray generated radionuclides

From: Comprehensive survey of radionuclides in contemporary smokeless tobacco products

Radionuclide Main radioactive emission mode Proportion of measured STPs in which radionuclide detected Range in STPs with detectable levels of radionuclide Historic radioactivity values in tobacco (mBq/g dwb) Tobacco type Country Date References
Radioactivity (mBq/g WWB) Mass (g/g WWB)
232Th α 1/70 1 3 × 10−7 0.5–18.4 Various Various 1973–2012 [20, 21, 90,91,92]
228Ac β 0/73 BLD BLD 0.4–6.5 Moassel, cigarette Egypt, Iraq, Switzerland 1963–2009 [28, 29, 71, 93]
228Th α 47/70 1–9 4–28 × 10−17 BLQ-206 Cigarette, leaf Russia, Brazil 1972–1994 [20, 94]
212Pb β 0/73 BLD BLD BLQ-9 Cigarette Switzerland, Iraq 1971–2009 [28, 29]
212Bi β 0/73 BLD BLD 9.9–17 Cigarette Iraq 2009 [29]
208Tl β 0/73 BLD BLD BLQ Cigarette Switzerland 1971 [28]
40K β 72/73 390–1900 1–7 × 10−6 49–2183 Various Various 1961–2012 [21, 29, 36, 71, 79, 95,96,97,98,99,100]
14C β 69/73 20–101 1–6 × 10−13 None reported
3H β 2/73 29–65 8–18 × 10−17 None reported
  1. BLD below limit of detection, BLQ below limit of quantification