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Table 2 Summary of current findings in contemporary STPs and historic values for uranium-235 and radionuclides of the uranium-238 decay series

From: Comprehensive survey of radionuclides in contemporary smokeless tobacco products

Radionuclide

Main radioactive emission mode

Proportion of STPs in which radionuclide detected

Range in STPs with detectable levels of radionuclide

Historic radioactivity values in tobacco (mBq/g dwb)a

Tobacco type

Country

Date

References

Radioactivity (mBq/g WWB)

Mass (g/g WWB)

     

8–240 × 10−9 g/g

Cigarette

Netherlands

1979

[64]

Total uranium

    

37–203 × 10−9 g/g

Cigarette, chewing, pan

India

1979–1992

[4, 19, 65, 66]

     

7.4–19.1 × 10−6 g/g

Snuff

India

1985–1987

[4, 19]

235U

α

0/70

BLD

BLD

BLQ

Cigarette

India

1979

[65]

BLD

Snuff, snus

US

2014

[67]

238U

α

3/70

1–10

7–80 × 10−8

BLD-8.1

Cigarette

Brazil, Egypt

1994–2012

[20, 21]

BLD

Snuff, snus

US

2014–2016

[67,68,69]

234U

α

5/70

1–9

4–38 × 10−12

0.3–1.3

Leaf

Brazil

1994

[20]

234Th

β

0/73

BLD

BLD

BLQ

Tobacco

Japan

1987

[70]

5.7–8.8

Moassel

Egypt

2005

[71]

234mPa

β

0/73

BLD

BLD

None reported

230Th

α

5/70

1–9

1–12 × 10−12

None reported

226Ra

α

67/70

1–9

1–24 × 10−14

1.8–20

Cigarette, pipe, cigar

Various

1960–2005

[20, 34,35,36, 71,72,73,74,75,76,77,78]

214Pb

β

0/73

BLD

BLD

BLQ

Cigarette

Switzerland

1971

[28]

214Bi

α

0/73

BLD

BLD

1.3–2.4

Moassel

Egypt

2005

[71]

44–59

Tobacco

Iraq

2009

[29]

210Pb

β

52/70

< 40

< 2 × 10−14

1.9–40

Various

Various

1966–2009

[35, 36, 70, 71, 73, 74, 77, 79,80,81,82,83,84,85,86]

8.6–11.6

Moist snuff

US

2009

[48]

210Po

α

66/70

2–18

1–11 × 10−17

0.74–80

Various

Various

1987–1994

[20, 87, 88]

     

< 2–120

Snuff, snus

US Sweden

1986–2014

[37, 48, 67, 89]

  1. aFor total uranium concentrations (g/g) are used, BLD—below limit of detection, BLQ—below limit of quantification