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Table 2 Summary of current findings in contemporary STPs and historic values for uranium-235 and radionuclides of the uranium-238 decay series

From: Comprehensive survey of radionuclides in contemporary smokeless tobacco products

Radionuclide Main radioactive emission mode Proportion of STPs in which radionuclide detected Range in STPs with detectable levels of radionuclide Historic radioactivity values in tobacco (mBq/g dwb)a Tobacco type Country Date References
Radioactivity (mBq/g WWB) Mass (g/g WWB)
      8–240 × 10−9 g/g Cigarette Netherlands 1979 [64]
Total uranium      37–203 × 10−9 g/g Cigarette, chewing, pan India 1979–1992 [4, 19, 65, 66]
      7.4–19.1 × 10−6 g/g Snuff India 1985–1987 [4, 19]
235U α 0/70 BLD BLD BLQ Cigarette India 1979 [65]
BLD Snuff, snus US 2014 [67]
238U α 3/70 1–10 7–80 × 10−8 BLD-8.1 Cigarette Brazil, Egypt 1994–2012 [20, 21]
BLD Snuff, snus US 2014–2016 [67,68,69]
234U α 5/70 1–9 4–38 × 10−12 0.3–1.3 Leaf Brazil 1994 [20]
234Th β 0/73 BLD BLD BLQ Tobacco Japan 1987 [70]
5.7–8.8 Moassel Egypt 2005 [71]
234mPa β 0/73 BLD BLD None reported
230Th α 5/70 1–9 1–12 × 10−12 None reported
226Ra α 67/70 1–9 1–24 × 10−14 1.8–20 Cigarette, pipe, cigar Various 1960–2005 [20, 34,35,36, 71,72,73,74,75,76,77,78]
214Pb β 0/73 BLD BLD BLQ Cigarette Switzerland 1971 [28]
214Bi α 0/73 BLD BLD 1.3–2.4 Moassel Egypt 2005 [71]
44–59 Tobacco Iraq 2009 [29]
210Pb β 52/70 < 40 < 2 × 10−14 1.9–40 Various Various 1966–2009 [35, 36, 70, 71, 73, 74, 77, 79,80,81,82,83,84,85,86]
8.6–11.6 Moist snuff US 2009 [48]
210Po α 66/70 2–18 1–11 × 10−17 0.74–80 Various Various 1987–1994 [20, 87, 88]
      < 2–120 Snuff, snus US Sweden 1986–2014 [37, 48, 67, 89]
  1. aFor total uranium concentrations (g/g) are used, BLD—below limit of detection, BLQ—below limit of quantification