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Table 1 Radionuclides examined in the current study

From: Comprehensive survey of radionuclides in contemporary smokeless tobacco products

Radionuclide Symbol Main source Main radioactive emission mode How measured (current study) Half-life time Specific activity
Uranium-235 235U Actinium series α A 7.04 × 108 years 79.8 kBq/g
Uranium-238 238U Primordial α A 4.47 × 109 years 12.44 kBq/g
Uranium-234 234U Uranium-238 decay series α A 2.455 × 105 years 231.3 MBq/g
Thorium-234 234Th β G 24.1 days 860 TBq/g
Protactinium-234 234mPa β G 6.7 h 74,000 TBq/g
Thorium-230 230Th α A 75,440 years 762.8 MBq/g
Radium-226 226Ra α A 1599 years 36 GBq/g
Lead-214 214Pb β G 26.9 min 1.213 × 106 TBq/g
Bismuth-214 214Bi α G 28.7 min 1.63 × 106 TBq/g
Lead-210 210Pb β G 22.6 years 2.84 TBq/g
Polonium-210 210Po α A 138.4 days 166.272 TBq/g
Thorium-232 232Th Primordial α A 1.4 × 1010 years 4.07 kBq/g
Actinium-228 228Ac Thorium-232 decay series β G 6.15 h 82,800 TBq/g
Thorium-228 228Th α A 1.913 years 30.366 TBq/g
Lead-212 212Pb β G 10.6 h 51,407 TBq/g
Bismuth-212 212Bi β G 1.009 h 542,000 TBq/g
Tantalum-208 208Tl β G 183.2 s 1.096 × 107 TBq/g
Potassium-40 40K Primordial β G 1.248 × 109 years 265.4 kBq/g
Carbon-14 14C Cosmic ray β G 5700 years 170 GBq/g
Tritium 3H β G 12.32 years 356.2 TBq/g
Americium-241 241Am Anthropogenic α G 432.5 years 126.9 GBq/g
Plutonium-238 238Pu α G 87.8 years 634 GBq/g
Plutonium-239 239Pu α A 24,110 years 2.297 GBq/g
Plutonium-240 240Pu α A 6561 years 8.404 GBq/g
Cesium-137 137Cs β G 30.08 years 3.214 TBq/g
Cesium-134 134Cs β G 2.0652 years 47.864 TBq/g
Iodine-131 131I β G 8.0252 days 4598.8 TBq/g
Cobalt-60 60Co β G 5.2749 years 41.868 TBq/g
  1. A α-spectroscopy, G γ-spectrometry