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TableĀ 2 Main applications of citric acid and related chemical function

From: Citric acid: emerging applications of key biotechnology industrial product

Application Reason
Pharmaceutically active substances, pharmaceuticals, personal care and cosmetic products Many APIs are supplied as their citrate salt. Effervescent tablets and preparations (via reaction with bicarbonate or carbonate), aiding the dissolution of APIs and improving palatability. Effervescent systems are widely used in teeth-cleaning products, pain relief and vitamin tablets. Very effective buffering system for pH control used in a wide range of for improving stability
Food Enhancing the activity of antioxidant preservatives (citrate powerful chelating agent for trace metal ions)
Flavouring agent Sharp, acid taste of citric acid can help mask the unpleasant, medicinal taste of pharmaceuticals
Diuretic Potassium citrate has diuretic properties
Blood anticoagulant Citrate chelates calcium, reducing the tendency for blood to clot
Environmental remediation Chelating agent sequestering heavy metals, including radioactive isotopes, easing also removal of hydrophobic organic compounds
Beverage Acidulant and pH stabilizer