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Table 1 High strain-rate regimes, the associated equipment and stimulus duration

From: Diagnostic techniques in deflagration and detonation studies

Strain rate Equipment Stimulus duration Comment
10−6–10−2 Instron 100 s of seconds Quasi-static loading
10+2–10+3 Drop weight 10 s milliseconds Generally used to determine impact ignition thresholds
10+2–10+3 Hopkinson bars 100 s microseconds Compression, tension and torsion loading. Extensively used for PBX formulations. Constitutive models
10+4–10+5 Miniature Hopkinson bar 10 s microseconds For fine grain materials or single crystals. Generally metals
10+3–10+6 Taylor impact 10 s microseconds Sometimes used for metal jacketed energetic samples
10+5–10+8 Plate impact Microseconds Pressures and durations similar to that of gap tests. Laser driven flier plates have sub-microsecond duration high-intensity shocks