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Table 1 Layered hydroxide nanocomposite toxicity and bio-distribution studies

From: Layered double hydroxide nanocomposite for drug delivery systems; bio-distribution, toxicity and drug activity enhancement

Nanocomposite type Method of synthesis Size (nm) Concentration (μg/ml) Assay (Test) Cell type Refrence Remark
1. Mg–Al–LDH Co-precipitation/ion exchange 50-100 40 MTT Human kidney (N) [4] Contain folic acid and not toxic, more than 80% of cell viable after 3days.
2. Zn–Al–LDH Co-precipitation _ 150 MTT Mouse fibroblast (C) [7] Higher fibroblast viability with LDH-levodopa treatment than pure levodopa, LDH alone no significant effect on fibroblast
3. ZLH Direct method _ 20 MTT Human liver cell (HepG2) (C) [8] Hippuric acid (HA) intercalated ZLH showed better synergy than pure HA and tamoxefen on cancer cells.
4. Mg–Al–LDH Co-precipitation 150-200 100 MTT Colon cell(C) [10] LDH coated with chitosan also not toxic at this dose on this cells
5. Mg–Al–LDH Ion exchange >300   Animal single dose Whole animal [13] Contain captopril and not toxic to the animal exposed.
6. Mg–Al–LDH Co-precipitation 80-90 20 MTT Human cervical cancer (C) [16] Potentiate the effect of paclitaxel
7. Mg–Al–LDH Co-precipitation 129-149 100 MTT/Trypan blue Cortical neuron(N) [17] DNA loaded LDH less toxic than pristine LDH at higher dose
8. Mg–Al–LDH Co-precipitation _ 1000 MTT Human osteosarcoma (C) [18] 5-fluorouraci loaded LDH show better effect than free drugs
9. Mg–Al–LDH Co-precipitation 50,100,200,350   MTT Fibroblast(N) and lung(c) [20] Potentiate the effect of anti-cancer and milder on normal cells
10. Mg–Al–LDH/Zn-Al-LDH Co-precipitation _ 80mg/kg of ketoprofen Magnifying lens Mucosal surface [21] Ketoprofen induced gastritis was reduced with LDH intercalation
11. Mg–Al–LDH Co-precipitation _ 5-2000mg/kg Blood chemistry Balb/c mice [26] No significant changes to clinical and biochemical parameters and no evidence of particle retention in tissues.
12. Zn-Al-LDH Co-precipitation/ion exchange _ 1.2 MTT Chang liver cells (N) [29] Lower concentration used and no effect on viability from either the carrier or loaded LDH
13. ZLH Direct method _ 1000 Trypan blue Chang liver cells (N) [30] No Significant cell viability decrease below 125μg/ml with good anti histamine release from the intercalated cetirizine.
14. Zn-Al-LDH Direct method 150 800 MTT, GSH, ROS, NO, comet assay, Cervical cell (Hela) (C) [32] Only dose above 400ug/ml causes DNA damages, hence biocompatibility possible since it has no toxic effect at lower doses base these assays.
15. Zn–Al–LDH Co-precipitation/ion exchange _ 50 MTT Mouse fibroblast and human lung fibroblast cells [33] The toxic effect of Para-amino salicylic acid on the two cells was decrease after intercalation into this LDH
16. Mg–Al–LDH Co-precipitation 50-300 2000 Trypan blue dye exclusion Human Embryonic Kidney cell (HEK 293T) (N) [34] More than 50% of cells viable at 500μg/ml. DNA transfection successful but lower than using commercial means.
17. Mg–Al–LDH Co-precipitation/ion exchange 57-63 40 MTT Human gastric epithelial cell (GES-1) gastric cancer cell (MKN45 and SGC-7901) [36] Etoposide harmful effect on normal cell significantly reduced and its anticancer effect enhanced after intercalation into LDH.
18. Mg–Al–LDH Co-precipitation _ 50 MTT Breast (MCF-7) (C),cervical (HeLa) (C), and fibroblast (3T3) (N) [37] Not toxic to all the three cell line, but enhanced the anti-cancer effect of protocatechuic acid.
19. Mg–Al–LDH Co-precipitation 20 50 MTT lung fibroblast cell (N) [38] No toxic effect against the tested cells and bacteria. Activity of the intercalated antibiotics similar to the naked one
  1. The table summarises some of the layered hydroxide nanocomposite activity in relation to toxicity and distribution over the last few years. The majority of whom were synthesis by either co-precipitation or ion exchange method, with sizes between 50-300 nm in most of them. Cell proliferation assay using MTT is applied in large no of the studies to evaluate for their cytotoxic and or anti-cancer impact on some selected cell lines.