Skip to main content

Table 1 Propolis volatiles from different geographic origin

From: Propolis volatile compounds: chemical diversity and biological activity: a review

Method of isolation* Geographic origin Percentage% (W/W) Main constituents Bioactivity Reference Year
DE Albania 0.3 cadinene (10.5%), methoxyacetophenone (9.0%), sesquiterpene alcohol M = 222 (18.5%) NT** [17] 1994
DE Bulgaria 0.3 β-eudesmol (8.8%), δ-cadinen (5.3%), sesquiterpene alcohol M = 222 (15.5%) Antibacterial [17, 20] 1994, 1999
DE China (Inner Mongolia) NA*** α –bisabolol (20.1%), 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (10.8%), 3-methyl-2-butene-1-ol (8.3%) NT [21] 2009
DE Mongolia 0.6 benzyl benzoate (8.6%), Sesquiterpene alcohol M = 222 (15.7%) NT [17] 1994
DE Brazil, stingless bees 0.1 Tetragona: nerolidol (12.3%), spatulenol (10.4%); antibacterial [22] 1999
Melipona quadrifasciata – p-cimen-8-ol (11.4);
M. comperittes – ethylphenol (10.2%)
DE Mexico (Yucatan) 0.02 α-pinene (11.9%), hexadecanoic acid (10.9%), trans-verbenol (7.0%) NT [23] 2006
DE Mexico (Yucatan), stingless bees 0.4 α-pinene (17.6%), β-caryophyllene (11.8%), spatulenol (9.7%), caryophyllene oxide (9.5%), β-bourbonene (9.2%) NT [23] 2006
DE Canary islands 0.1-0.3 nerolidol (3.2 – 11.0%), spatulenol (3.2 – 8.4%), ledol (1.6 – 3.8%) Antibacterial [24] 2000
HD Croatia 0.2 limonene (6.4 – 10.5%), benzyl alcohol (3.1 – 18.2%), benzyl benzoate (3.6 – 4.4%) NT [25] 1996
HD Czech Republic NA* benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol, vanillin, eugenol NT [13] 1974
HD Greece 0.03-0.1 α –pinene (7.9 – 45.8%), trans-β-terpineol (2.2 – 6.6%), Junipene (1.5 – 11.7%), δ-cadinene (0.3 – 8.4) Antibacterial [26] 2007
HD Hungary 0.3–1.5 β-eudesmol, benzyl benzoate (2 types, one richer in benzyl benzoate) Antibacterial [16] 1988
HD India (Maharashtra state) 3.2 tricosane (13.6%), hexacosane (11.5%), palmitic acid (8.5%), linalool (6.7%), methyleugenol (6.0%) Repellent activity against the honeybee Apis florea [27] 2013
HS, HD Italy (Northern) NA benzoic acid (3.1 – 30.1%), benzyl benzoate (0.2 – 13.1%), β-eudesmol (2.9 – 12.9%), δ-cadinene (1.3 – 13.3%), γ-cadinene (1.4 – 8.9%), Т-cadinol (2.7 – 10.0%), α-cadinol (4.8 – 9.7%) NT [18] 2013
HD Portugal 0.05 viridiflorol (9.0 – 39.0%), n-tricosane (5.3%), n-nonadecane (4.0 – 18.0%) NT [28] 2013
HD China (Inner Mongolia) NA 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol (26.8%), phenylethyl alcohol (17.1%), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (9.5%) NT [21] 2009
HD Brazil 0.4 spatulenol (3.0 – 13.9%), (2Z,6E)-farnesol (1.6 – 14.9%), prenyl-acetophenone (0.2 – 8.7%), benzyl benzoate (0.3 – 18.3%) NT [29] 1998
HD Brazil 0.1 β-caryophyllene (12.7%), acetophenone (12.3%) Antibacterial [30] 2010
HD Brazil NA nerolidol (6.6%), trans-caryophyllene (4.1), spatulenol (3.6%) NT [31] 2008
HD Brazil (Minas Gerais State)   (E)-nerolidol (17.1%), β-caryophyllene (13.4%), selina-3,7(11) diene (10.4%) NT [32] 2008
HD Brazil (Teresina, Piaui State) NA 1,8 – cineole (24.0%), exo-fenchol (11.3%), terpinen-4-ol (7.7%) NT [33] 2008
HD Brazil (Piaui State) NA α-pinene (0.3 – 34.4%), E-caryophyllene (2.6 – 17.4%), α-copaene (3.6 – 7.5%) NT [33] 2008
HD Brazil (Rio de Janeiro State) 0.04 α-pinene (18.3%), β-pinene (6.5%), δ-cadinene (7.0%) Antifungal [34] 2010
HD Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul State) 3-3.8 α-pinene (57.0 – 63.0%), β-pinene (12.5 – 30.8%), limonene (1.5 – 11.2%) Antibacterial [35] 2012
HD Ethiopia (Assela) 0.9 5,6,7,8-tetramethylbicyclo [4,1,0] hept-4-en-3-one (15.0%), acoradiene (13.8%), epicedrol (6.8%) NT [36] 2012
HD Ethiopia (Haramaya) 1.2 calamenene (13.8%), 4-terpineol (8.6%), epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene (8.4%) NT [36] 2012
SHS Estonia NA eucalyptol (25.9%), α-pinene (20.6%), benzaldehyde (10.8%), β-pinene (8.9%) NT [37] 2014
SHS China NA 3-methyl-3-butene-1-ol (40.3%), 3-methyl-2-butene-1-ol (11.6%), 4-penten-1-yl acetate (9.0%), α-longipinene (9.4%) NT [37] 2014
SHS Brazil NA α-pinene (52.5%), β-pinene (20.8%) NT [37] 2014
SHS Uruguay NA α-pinene (23.0 – 53.4%), β –pinene (24.1 – 27.4%), limonene (2.1 – 15.6%) NT [37] 2014
HS Italy (Southern) NA α-pinene (13.2%), germacrene D-4-ol (6.3%) NT [18] 2013
HS UK (Wales) NA 6-methylheptyl-5-en-2-one (16.0%), benzyl alcohol (14.2%), benzaldehyde (9.0%) NT [38] 1989
HS Argentina (Andean region) NA O-cimene, limonene NT [39] 2011
DHS China (Inner Mongolia) NA heptadecane (7.0%), phenantrene (4.0%) NT [21] 2009
DHS China (Heilongjiang, Beijing) NA acetic acid (44.3 - 60.0%), benzyl alcohol (7.3 - 13.9%) NT [40] 2013
DHS China (Shanghai) NA acetic acid (25.3%), cedrene (10.4%), 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol (7.1%) NT [40] 2013
DHS China (Shandong) NA acetic acid (11.4%), 1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl-benzene (9.7%), 1,2,3,4, 4a,5,6,8a-octahydro-4a,8-dimethyl-2-(1-methylethenyl)-naphthalene (8.3%), benzyl alcohol (7.4%) NT [40] 2013
HS-SPME Turkey (Eastern Anatolia) NA phenyl ethyl alcohol (7.7%), benzyl alcohol (7.4%), decanal (6.7%), ethyl benzoate (6.5%) Antimicrobial, antioxidant [41] 2013
HS-SPME Turkey (North Eastern Anatolia) NA cedrol (7.0 - 15.6%), α-bisabolol (14.3%), δ-cadinene (2.7 - 5.6%) Antimicrobial, antioxidant [41] 2013
HS-SPME Turkey (South Eastern Anatolia) NA α –terpinene (21.8%), α –terpineol (12.3%), junipene (9.1%), cinnamyl alcohol (8.7%), β-cariophyllene (8.1%) NT [42] 2004
  Brazil, stingless Friesomelita Bee legs samples manool, totarol NT [43] 2002
Extraction France 0.5 β-eudesmol (30.0%), guaiol (10.0%), benzyl benzoate (8.0%) NT [15] 1981
SD Poland (Southern) 1.2 of ethanol extract farnesol, dihydroeudesmol, guaiol antibacterial [44] 1983
UAE Brazil 5.4 in raw 0.3 in ethanol nerolidol (10.4 – 14.7%), benzenepropanoic acid (14.9 – 20.8%) NT [45] 2013
MAE Brazil   longipinene (24.9%), α-eudesmol (6.9%), β-eudesmol (6.1%), β-caryophyllene (5.3%) Therapeutic effect on anxiety [46] 2012
  1. *DE Distillation-extraction; HD hydrodestilation; SHS static headspace; HS headspace; DHS dynamic headspace; HS-SPME headspace solid-phase microextraction; SD steam destilation; UAE ultrasonic assisted extraction; MAE microwave assisted extraction. ** NT not tested; *** NA not available.