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Table 2 Calculated hazard quotients for pesticides and PPCPs detectedain the Grand Marais treatment wetland and surrounding sampling sites in 2012 (adapted from Carlson et al., 2013)[4]

From: Performance of a constructed wetland in Grand Marais, Manitoba, Canada: Removal of nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and antibiotic resistance genes from municipal wastewater

Compound Species Toxicity endpoint Toxicity value (mg/L) MECb(mg/L) HQc Reference for toxicity value
2,4-D Ranunculus aquatilis (Water buttercup) EC50 – 4 week relative growth 0.2 1.3 × 10-5 6.4 × 10-2 Belgers et al., 2007 [26]
  Daphnia magna EC50 – 48 h immobilization 25 1.3 × 10-5 5.1 × 10-4 Martins et al., 2007 [27]
  Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow trout) LC50 – 96 h exposure 100 1.3 × 10-5 1.3 × 10-4 Little et al., 1990 [28]
Atrazine Lemna minor IC50 – 7 day growth inhibition 61.7 1.5 × 10-5 2.4 × 10-4 Teodorovic et al., 2012 [29]
  Daphnia magna EC50 – 48 h immobilization 25.3 1.5 × 10-5 1.7 × 10-2 Phyu et al., 2004 [30]
  Oncorhynchus mykiss LC50 – 28 day exposure 0.87 1.5 × 10-5 5.8 × 10-4 Giddingset al., 2005 [31]
Carbamazepine Lemna minor EC50 – 7 day growth inhibition 22.5 5.0 × 10-4 2.2 × 10-2 Cleuvers, 2003 [32]
  Daphnia magna EC50 – 48 h immobilization >100 5.0 × 10-4 5.0 × 10-3 Cleuvers, 2003 [32]
  Oryzias latipes (Japanese medaka) LC50 – 48 h exposure 35.4 5.0 × 10-4 1.4 × 10-2 Kim et al., 2007 [33]
Gemfibrozil Chlorella vulgaris LC50 – 24 h exposure 60 1.4 × 10-4 2.3 × 10-3 El-Bassat et al., 2011 [34]
  Daphnia spp. ECOSAR EC50 (acute) 6 1.4 × 10-4 2.3 × 10-2 Sanderson et al., 2003 [35]
  Fish spp. ECOSAR EC50 (acute) 0.9 1.4 × 10-4 1.5 × 10-1 Sanderson et al., 2003 [35]
Sulfamethoxazole Pseudokirchneriella subcapita EC50 – 72 h growth inhibition 0.52 5.8 × 10-5 1.1 × 10-1 Isidori et al., 2005 [36]
  Daphnia magna EC50 – 24 h immobilization 25.2 5.8 × 10-5 2.3 × 10-3 Isidori et al., 2005 [36]
  Oryzias latipes LC50 – 96 h exposure 562.5 5.8 × 10-5 1.0 × 10-4 Kim et al., 2007 [33]
Sulfapyridine Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata IC50 – 72 h growth inhibition 10.2 7.9 × 10-6 7.7 × 10-4 Blaise et al., 2006 [37]
  Thamnocephalus platyurus
(Beavertail fairy shrimp)
LC50 – 24 h exposure 144.4 7.9 ×10-6 5.5 × 10-5 Blaise et al., 2006 [37]
  Oncorhynchus mykiss 48 h TEC – primary hepatocyte exposure >249 7.9 ×10-6 3.2 × 10-5 Blaise et al., 2006 [37]
  1. a A full list of screened compounds and their limits of detection can be found in Additional file 1: Table S1.
  2. b MEC = Maximum environmental concentration measured in the current study.
  3. c HQ = Hazard quotient.