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Table 1 Water quality parameters measured in sampling sites near the Grand Marais treatment wetland during 2012

From: Performance of a constructed wetland in Grand Marais, Manitoba, Canada: Removal of nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and antibiotic resistance genes from municipal wastewater

Date Site Total suspended Solids (mg/L) Nitrite + nitrate (mg/L) Total ammonia + ammonium (mg/L) Total phosphorus (mg/L) Chl A (μg/L) DO (mg/L) T (°C) Conductivity (mS/cm) pH
May 22 Lagoon 29 ±3 0.14 ± 0.01 1.7 ± 0.1 3.1 ± 0.10 1.5 × 102 1.5 15.3 1.1 NA
Outlet 8.2 ± 0.8 <LOD 0.010 0.030 ± 0.002 12 7.4 14.8 0.42 NA
June 15 Lagoon 34 ± 6 <LOD 0.060 ± 0.01 1.5 ± 0.04 1.6 × 102 1.5 18.1 1.1 9.25
Outlet 8.6 ± 1 <LOD 0.020 ± 0.01 0.040 ± 0.01 15 7.6 17.5 0.38 7.56
July 16 Release 12 ± 0.8 <LOD 0.17 ± 0.01 0.68 ± 0.01 11 5.6 20.1 0.99 9.68
Channel 12 ± 1 <LOD 0.22 ± 0.02 0.46 ± 0.01 22 0.60 19.4 0.89 9.26
East Wetland 7.4 ± 2 <LOD 0.18 ± 0.04 0.40 ± 0.04 80 0.90 18.6 0.89 7.85
West Wetland 12 ± 2 <LOD 0.030 ± 0.02 0.10 ± 0.04 1.7 × 102 0.90 17.2 0.54 7.10
Outlet 7.0 ± 1 <LOD 0.020 ± 0.001 0.010 ± 0.007 16 4.4 19.3 0.41 7.44
July 23 Release 9.7 ± 0.9 <LOD 0.25 0.39 ± 0.03 24 6.0 24.2 1.1 9.95
Mid-Channel 31 ± 8 <LOD 0.14 0.61 ± 0.02 76 0.20 21.7 1.1 8.89
Channel 13 ± 2 <LOD 0.040 0.51 ± 0.03 24 0.50 20.2 1.1 8.33
East Wetland 5.3 ± 0.5 <LOD 0.060 0.10 ± 0.04 1.2 × 102 0.30 19.5 1.1 7.31
West Wetland 15 ± 5 <LOD 0.030 0.040 ± 0.01 1.3 × 102 0.30 18.9 0.72 6.92
Outlet 4.2 ± 1 <LOD 0.020 <LOQ 15 4.3 23.3 0.38 7.46
  1. Measurements are presented as mean value ± SD; <LOD = below the limit of detection; <LOQ = below the limit of quantification; NA= not available; Chl A = chlorophyll-a; DO = dissolved oxygen. LODs: Nitrite + nitrate – 0.05 mg/L, Total ammonia + ammonium – 0.010 mg/L; LOQs: Phosphorus – 0.010 mg/L.