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Table 4 Contamination indices and ranking of tailings impoundments located in the Aries river basin a

From: Characterization and assessment of potential environmental risk of tailings stored in seven impoundments in the Aries river basin, Western Romania

Enrichment factor (Ef)
Impoundment No (0 < Ef ≤ 1) Minor (1 < Ef ≤ 3) Moderate (3 < Ef ≤ 5) Moderately severe (5 < Ef ≤ 10) Severe (10 < Ef ≤ 25) Very severe (25 < Ef ≤ 50) Extremely severe (Ef > 50)
Saliste Ni < Cr Cu - Zn(9.8) Pb(22), Cd(23) - As(251)
Gura Rosiei Cr < Ni Cu Zn Cd(7.7) - Pb(43) As(255)
Stefanca Cr < Ni - Pb < Zn Cd(5.4), As(9.6) - - Cu(61)
Sesei Ni < Cr - Pb < Zn Cd(9.1) As(11) - Cu(76)
Cutii Ni < Cr - - Zn(6.4), Cd(9.1), Cu(9.5) - - Pb(59), As(715)
Sartas Cr Ni - - Cu(12), Zn(13) - Cd(34), Pb(73), As(860)
Brazesti Cr < Ni - - Cu(6.9) Zn(12) Cd(41) Pb(70), As(1100)
Geoaccumulation index (I geo )
Impoundment Practically unpolluted (I geo < 0) Unpolluted to moderately polluted (0 < I geo ≤ 1) Moderately polluted (1 < I geo ≤ 2) Moderately to heavily polluted (2 < I geo ≤ 3) Heavily polluted (3 < I geo ≤ 4) Heavily to extremely polluted (4 < I geo ≤ 5) Extremely polluted (I geo > 5)
Saliste Cr < Ni < Cu Zn Pb(2.0), Cd(2.0) - - - As(5.5)
Gura Rosiei Cr < Ni < Cu < Zn < Cd - Pb(1.9) - - As(4.5) -
Stefanca Cr < Ni < Pb Zn < Cd As(1.3) - Cu(3.9) - -
Sesei Ni < Cr Zn < Pb Cd(1.5), As(1.7) - - Cu(4.5) -
Cutii Ni < Cr Zn Cd(1.4), Cu(1.5) - - Pb(4.1) As(7.8)
Sartas Cr < Ni   Cu(1.8), Zn(1.9) - Cd(3.4) Pb(4.4) As(8.0)
Brazesti Cr < Ni Cu Zn(1.6) - Cd(3.4) Pb(4.2) As(8.2)
Contamination factor (C f )
Impoundment Low (C f <1) Moderate (1 < C f ≤3) Considerable (3 < C f ≤ 6) Very high (C f >6)
Saliste Ni < Cr < Cu Zn(2.6) Pb(5.9) Cd(6.1), As(67)
Gura Rosiei Cr < Ni < Cu < Zn < Cd - Pb(5.8) As(34)
Stefanca Cr < Ni Pb(1.3), Zn(1.4), Cd(2.0) As(3.7) Cu(23)
Sesei Ni < Cr Zn(1.5), Pb(1.6) Cd(4.1), As(4.9) Cu(34)
Cutii Ni < Cr Zn(2.9) Cd(4.1), Cu(4.3) Pb(26), As(321)
Sartas Cr < Ni - Cu(5.3), Zn(5.6) Cd(15), Pb(32), As(384)
Brazesti Cr < Ni Cu(2.6) Zn(4.6) Cd(16), Pb(28), As(437)
Contamination degree (C d )
  Low (C d <8) Moderate (8 < C d ≤ 16) Considerable (16 < C d ≤ 32) Very high (C d >32)
Impoundment - - -   Stefanca (32), Gura Rosiei, (42), Sesei (46), Saliste (83), Cutii (360), Sartas (443), Brazesti (488)
  1. a based on seven typical metals for the studied area.