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Table 3 Concentration of micronutrients with low established upper intake limit (Cu, Cr, Mo, Se) in tablets compared to maximum accepted level, and daily intake (DI) as recommended on tablet label and compared to recommended daily allowance and permitted levels

From: Evaluation of heavy metals content in dietary supplements in Lebanon

Sample ID Cu (μg/g) DI* (μg/day) Cu Cr (μg/g) DI* (μg/day) Cr Mo (μg/g) DI* (μg/day) Mo Se (μg/g) DI* (μg/day) Se
V1 0.5 1.8 0.08 2.7 0.8 2.7 2.0 6.9
V2 9.0 6.6 0.04 0.03 3.4 2.4 0.1 0.08
V3 7.8 9.8 0.23 0.29 1.0 1.3 7.8 9.8
VM1 1583 1092 5.5 2.4 7.7 5.3 60.1 41.4
VM2 224 370 0.88 1.5 26 43 30.7 50.7
VM3 185 183 0.58 0.58 4.1 4.0 13.8 15.5
VM4 867 434 0.37 0.18 0.8 0.4 18.8 9.4
VM5 9.5 14.3 0.07 0.11 0.6 0.9 1.0 1.5
VM6 70 106 0.05 0.07 0.4 0.6 2.0 3.0
VM7 867 1396 0.31 0.49 35.4 57 24.9 40
VM8 1952 2635 0.02 0.03 13.3 18 52.9 71
VM9 725 1087 1.26 1.89 44.4 67 12.8 19
VM10 1270 927 0.17 0.12 0.5 0.4 0.9 0.7
VM11 225 979 0.54 2.30 0.6 2.6 7.3 32
VM12 281 1018 0.32 1.14 0.4 1.5 17.0 61
VM13 1.1 1.42 0.03 0.05 0.6 0.8 4.0 5.7
M1 6.9 22 0.06 0.20 0.7 2.2 2.1 6.2
M2 6.5 8.5 0.15 0.19 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.7
M3 376 1429 0.05 0.19 1.0 3.8 0.5 1.9
M4 7.9 25 0.13 0.41 0.3 1.0 1.1 3.2
M5 1.5 6.6 0.04 0.18 0.7 2.9 5.3 22
M6 8.8 17 0.10 0.19 0.8 1.6 2.2 3.9
M7 5.2 6.8 0.02 0.02 0.9 1.9 3.4 5.0
H1 8.5 5.8 0.08 0.05 1.1 0.7 1.1 0.7
H2 5.6 7.2 0.02 0.02 3.7 4.8 4.4 5.2
H3 3.8 2.0 0.03 0.02 0.5 0.3 200 104
H4 37 24 0.02 0.01 9.6 6.3 3.3 2.0
H5 15 12 0.09 0.07 7.5 5.8 3.1 2.3
H6 350 256 0.07 0.05 5.2 3.8 0.4 0.3
H7 16.5 12 0.02 0.01 6.5 4.7 0.3 0.2
H8 18.9 10 0.02 0.01 9.3 4.9 0.8 0.4
H9 5.8 1.8 0.07 0.02 0.1 0.03 4.1 1.3
H10 6.5 3.2 0.02 0.01 0.9 0.5 5.3 2.5
MAL** 100 a   15b   10 a   25c  
PDE   1000 a   150 b   100 a   250 c
RDA/FDA   900 d   35 d   34 d (male)
45 d (female)
  55 f
WHO/FAO‡‡   300 e   -   -   -
  1. *DI: daily intake calculated from mass of tablet and labeled recommended tablets per day.
  2. **MAL: Maximum accepted levels of metals in Tablets (μg/g) according to US Pharmacopeia (USP).
  3. PDE: Permitted Daily exposure (μg/day) according to US Pharmacopeia (USP).
  4. RDA: Recommended daily allowance after FDA [6].
  5. ‡‡WHO/FAO : Permissible daily intake calculated from using provisional tolerable intake and body weight of 60 and 10% due to dietary supplements [35].
  6. aUSP [19]b USP [34]cUSP[20].
  7. d FDA[6]e JECFA [38]f IOM [11].