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Table 2 Concentration of micronutrients with a high upper intake limit (Fe, Zn, Mn) in tablets compared to maximum accepted level, and daily intake (DI) as recommended on tablet label and compared to recommended daily allowance and permitted levels

From: Evaluation of heavy metals content in dietary supplements in Lebanon

Sample ID Fe (μg/g) DI* (μg/day) Fe Zn (μg/g) DI* (μg/day) Zn Mn (μg/g) DI* (μg/day) Mn
V1 1120 3841 3570 12245 328 1124
V2 346 252 14 10 5.5 4
V3 1836 2295 396 494 2.5 3
VM1 9439 6513 9986 6890 2028 1399
VM2 7659 12637 1918 3164 8.7 1396
VM3 5801 5743 1199 1187 743 735
VM4 11788 5894 5108 3554 1962 981
VM5 36 55 3.5 5 17 25
VM6 2420 4654 1839 2776 10 15
VM7 9389 15117 2784 4482 1409 2269
VM8 72 97 16054 21673 3.5 5
VM9 41 62 3136 4705 852 1278
VM10 21280 15534 9895 6566 132 96
VM11 1942 8465 823 3586 361 1575
VM12 35 128 1307 4731 639 2315
VM13 13494 19162 5067 7195 43 62
M1 82 253 2.1 7 63 196
M2 24 31 961 1250 4.4 5.2
M3 56 212 1263 4799 480 1826
M4 58 186 3.5 11 14 45
M5 6 24 806 3553 6.5 29
M6 68 133 6.7 13 13 25
M7 25 70 6.1 8 8.2 11
H1 578 399 3.3 3 12 8
H2 50 65 1.1 1.4 1.1 0.7
H3 888 462 10.5 5.5 1.0 0.5
H4 5 3 4452 2894 1.5 0.9
H5 85 66 8.4 6.5 59 46
H6 47 34 2.0 1.5 4.5 3
H7 26 19 10.5 7.7 5.3 4
H8 47 25 2.9 1.6 6.2 3
H9 15 5 1.0 0.3 2.1 0.6
H10 27 14 1.8 0.9 3.3 1.5
MAL** 1500a - 1500a - 250b  
PDE - 15000 a - 15000 a   2500 b
RDA/FDA - 8000 c - 8000 c (female) - -
11000 c (male)
WHO/FAO‡‡ - 4800 d - 6000 e - -
  1. *DI: daily intake calculated from mass of tablet and labeled recommended tablets per day.
  2. **MAL: Maximum accepted levels of metals in Tablets (μg/g)according to US Pharmacopeia (USP).
  3. PDE: Permitted Daily exposure (μg/day) according to US Pharmacopeia (USP).
  4. RDA: Recommended daily allowance after FDA [6].
  5. ‡‡WHO/FAO : Permissible daily intake calculated from using provisional tolerable intake and body weight of 60 kg and 10% due to dietary supplements [35].
  6. aUSP [20]b USP [34]c FDA[6]d JECFA [36]e JECFA [38].