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Table 7 Main bioaccessibility results for materials tested using an in vitro procedure calibrated with in vivo data

From: Experimental determination of the oral bioavailability and bioaccessibility of lead particles

SUBSTRATE IVBA% REFERENCES
Flanders soil 91±4 [29, 43, 60, 61, 63, 64, 82, 84, 109]RBALP (Gastric)
Oker 11 soil 56±4  
47 Omaha community smelter soils, US 68-69 (average)  
HER-2930 smelter soil, US 69±1.5 (using Dr Drexler’s Pb levels)  
  85±1.1 (using EPA’s average bulk Pb levels)  
17 residential soils, tailings, and slags from mining waste sites, US 14±1.7 to 90±3.1  
1 NIST paint 75±3.8  
1 Galena 6±2.3  
8 shooting range soils, US 83±1 to 100±3  
20 soils from the N-S transect, US (agricultural, grazing land, open range, forested land, residential, desert) 3.7 to 39  
70 samples of tap water particles 1.5 to 100  
9 soils from mining sites* 3.1±0.1 to 99.3±14.3 [86]RIVM (Intestinal)
1 NIST paint* + soil 86.2 ± 2.3  
1 Galena* 1.7 ± 0.2  
15 mining soils, France 9-75 (Intestinal) [65, 66, 95, 133, 134]UBM
10 smelting soils, France 34-90 (Intestinal)  
27 urban topsoils, France 11-63 (Intestinal)  
12 soils (mining, composite, phosphate-treated), 1 dust, from various studies (European and North American) 0.6±0.1 to 112.8±18.5 (Gastric)  
  0.1±0.1 to 89.5±91.3 (Intestinal)  
2 urban residential soils, Australia 20.0±4.0 to 26.1±6.5 [67, 68, 112]SBRC (Intestinal)
3 domestic incinerator soils, Australia 11.7±2.8 to 22.5±5.0  
  3.2±2.6 to 8.5±0.6  
Brushal, Carl-1, Hamburg, and Oker-11 soils§ 30.7±6.1 to 62.9±11.0  
9 shooting range soils, Australia 21.3-102.6  
  59±3.7 to 92±9.0 (3 soils)  
5 historical fill soils, Australia 5.5-26.1 (4 soils)  
  10.7±0.7 to 16.6±1.1 (2 soils)  
13 mining/smelting soils, Australia 11.6-82.5  
  31±18.4 to 74±17.3 (3 soils)  
1 gasworks, Australia 27.2  
  27±1.6  
1 geogenic, Australia 12.5  
  1. *Same test materials as in RBALP studies, 0.06 g;§soils tested by Marschner et al.[62];Smith, et al.[68].