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Table 6 Examples of variants of physiologically based in vitro procedures (not calibrated) applied to Pb particles (2 pages)

From: Experimental determination of the oral bioavailability and bioaccessibility of lead particles

GENERAL ORAL GASTRIC INTESTINAL
References Mixing Extraction Time, pH Fluid S/L (g.mL-1) Time, pH Fluid Time, pH Fluid
Sheppard et al. 1995[116]   Centrifugation, filtration 0.2 μm     4 h, pH 2.0 NaCl; pepsin; HCl 18 h, pH 7.5 NaHCO3; NaCl; bile; pancreatin; α-amylase
Berti and Cunningham 1997[125] Stir bar     1/100 1 h, pH 2.5 Pepsin; organic acids; HCl 2 h, pH 7.0 NaHCO3; pancreatin; bile
Davis et al. 1997[126] Wrist action shaker Centrifugation (2,100 g; 25 min)    1/10 2 h, pH 1.3 Pepsin; organic acids; HCl 2 h, pH 7.0 NaHCO3; pancreatin; bile
Hamel et al. 1998[92] Shaking water bath Centrifugation (1,380 g; 10 min)    1/100 to 1/5000 2 h NaCl; pepsin; HCl   
Hamel et al. 1999[102] Water bath, 90 cyc/min Centrifugation (906 g; 10 min), filtration 0.45 μm 5 s, pH 5.5 Mucin; urea; KCl; NaCl; Na2HPO4; CaCl2.4H2O 1/2160 2 h NaCl; pepsin; HCl 2 h NaHCO3
Oliver et al. 1999[89] Wrist action shaker Filtration 0.45 μm    1/10 2 h, pH 1.3 to 3.0 Organic acids; HCl; with(out) pepsin 16 h, pH 7.0 NaHCO3 with(out) bile & pancreatin
Ellickson et al. 2001[57] Bath set, 90 cyc/min Centrifugation (200 g; 20 min) & (906 g; 15 min); HNO3, 48 h; filtration 0.45 μm   Mucin; urea; CaCl2.H2O; NaCl; KCl; Na2HPO4 1/2160 2 h, pH 1.4 Pepsin; NaCl; HCl 4 h, pH 6.5 NaHCO3
Oomen et al. 2002, Van De Wiele et al. 2007[82, 87]; DIN test Agitator, 200 rpm Centrifugation (7,000 g; 10 min)    1/50 2 h, pH 2.0 HCl; [pepsin; mucin]* 6 h, pH 7.5 Phosphate buffer; [bile; trypsin; pancreatin]*
Oomen et al. 2002, Van De Wiele et al. 2007[82, 87]; SHIME test Stirring, 150 rpm Centrifugation (7,000 g; 10 min)    1/2.5 to 1/40 3 h, pH 2.0 (fast) or 4.0 (fed) Nutrilon plus; pectin; mucin; cellobiose; proteose peptone; starch; glucose 5 h, pH 6.5 NaHCO3; pancreatin; bile
Oomen et al. 2002, Van De Wiele et al. 2007[82, 87]; TIM test Peristaltic Ultrafiltration 5 min, pH 5.0    Fast: 40 min, pH 4.5 to 1.8 HCl; lipase; pepsin* 0.5 mL/min Fast: 5.3 h, pH 6.5 to 7.2 NaHCO3; pancreatin; bile* 1 mL/min
Fed: 4.5 h, pH 6.5 to 7.2
Fed: 1.5 h, pH 5.0 to 2.0
Yu et al. 2006[113] Water bath, 90 rpm Filtration 0.45 μm   Mucin; urea; KH2PO4; CaCl2.H2O; NaCl, KCl 1/400 2 h, pH 1.4 NaCl; pepsin; HCl 2 h, pH 6.5 NaHCO3
Bruce et al. 2007[94] Ar Centrifugation (10,000 g; 15 min), filtration 0.22 μm    1/100 1 h pH 1.3 (fast) to 4 (fed) Pepsin; HCl; organic acids 3 h pH 7.0 NaHCO3; bile; pancreatin
Saikat et al. 2007[104]   Centrifugation (2,100 g; 25 min)    1/38-1/100 1 h pH 1.1 or 2.5 Pepsin; organic acids; HCl 4 h, pH 5.5 or 7.0 NaHCO3; pancreatin; bile
Triantafyllidou et al. 2007[26] Gentle mixing No separation    1/16,667 3 h, pH 1.2 NaCl; pepsin; HCl   
Turner and Ip 2007[127] End-over-end Centrifugation (2,100 g;10 min)    1/200 2 h, pH 2.5 Pepsin; HCl; Na malate & citrate; lactic & acetic acids 4 h, pH 7.0 NaHCO3; bile; pancreatin
Van De Wiele et al. 2007[87] Water rotator set Filtration 0.45 μm    1/100 1 h pH 2.5 Pepsin; HCl; Na citrate & malate; lactate, acetate 4 h, pH 7.0 NaHCO3; bile; pancreatin
Bosso and Enzweiler 2008; Bosso et al. 2008[107, 114] Slow orbital + Ar flux Centrifugation (5,000 rpm; 20 min)    1/100 1 h, pH 1.7 Pepsin; HCl; citric, malic, acetic, & lactic acids 2 h, pH 7.0 NaHCO3; bile; pancreatin
Turner et al. 2009[128] Constant, lateral Centrifugation (2,000 g; 10 min)    1/100-1/143 1 h, pH 2.5 Pepsin; HCl; Na malate, citrate; lactic & acetic acids 4 h, pH 7.0 NaHCO3; bile; pancreatin
Sialelli et al. 2010[115] Orbital, 150 rpm     1/100 1 h, pH 1.5 Pepsin; HCl; Na citrate; malic & lactic acids 3.5 h, pH 7.0 Pancreatin, NaHCO3