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Table 1 In vivo experiments on Pb particles and bioavailability results (2 pages)

From: Experimental determination of the oral bioavailability and bioaccessibility of lead particles

REFERENCE SPECIMEN SUBSTRATE STATE, DURATION, DOSE RBA/ABA
Freeman et al. 1992[45] Rats (7–8 wk) Mine wastes · Fed · 12.1±3.6-26.8±4.8 (blood RBA %)
· 30 d · 4.8±1.9-13.3±2.2 (bone RBA %)
· 0.12-24 mg Pb/kg bw/d · 0.6±3.1-13.6±3.1 (liver RBA %)
Dieter et al. 1993[53] Rats (6–7 wk) Pb oxide, Pb sulfide, Pb ore concentrate · Fed · 69-93 (blood RBA %, Pb oxide)
· 30 d · ND-36 (blood RBA %, Pb sulfide)
· 0–100 ppm Pb · ND-10 (blood RBA %, Pb ore)
Freeman et al. 1993[54] Rats (7–8 wk) Mine wastes · Fed · 0.36±1.04-7.32±1.57 (blood ABA %)
· 30 d · 0.51±0.15-2.25±0.23 (bone ABA %)
· 5 to 20 ppm Pb
Ruby et al. 1993[55] Rabbits (12 wk) Mine wastes · Fast · 9±4 % Pb soluble in stomach
· 0.5-36 h
· 7.8 mg Pb/kg bw
Freeman et al. 1994[39] Rats (7–8 wk) Mine wastes · Fed · 2.7±1.5 (% blood RBA)
· 30 d · 0.40±0.16 (% bone RBA)
· 0.12 to 24 mg Pb/kg bw/d · 0.55±0.68 (% liver RBA)
Schoof et al. 1995[40] Rats (4 wk) Smelter soil · Fed · 41 (% blood RBA)
· 31 d · 20 (% blood ABA)
· 0.11-3.4 mg Pb/kg bw/d  
Freeman et al. 1996[44] Rats (~ 4 wk) Soil, Pb sulfide · Fed · 0.8-8.7 (soil, % RBA)
· 44 d · 1.2-5 (Pb sulfide,% RBA)
· 17.6-127 ppm  
Lorenzana et al. 1996[56] Swine (40–50 d) Tacoma smelter soil & slag · Fast (small dough) · Mean ABA§ (%, PbAciv): 10 (soil), 4 (slag)
· 0–7 d
· 34–567 μg Pb/kg bw (single dose)
Casteel et al. 1997[49] Swine (8–9 kg) Berm and residential soils · Fast (small dough) · 74-75 (point estimate RBA %)
· 15 d
· 71–732 μg Pb/kg bw/d
Casteel et al. 1997-1998 # Swine Joplin smelter soil treated or not with 1% phosphate   · Point estimate RBA (%): 59–67 (not treated) to 38–45 (treated 1% phosphate)
Maddaloni et al. 1998[38] Humans (21–40 yr) Bunker Hill residential soil · Fast & Fed · Fasting state: 26.2±8.1 (% ABA)
· 30 h · With breakfast meal: 2.52±1.7 (% ABA)
· 250 μg Pb/70 kg bw  
Ellickson et al. 2001[57] Rats (0.18–0.2 kg) SRM 2710 Montana soil · Fast · 0.4-0.9 (% RBA)
· 3 d
· 7–8 mg Pb (single dose)
Brown et al. 2003[58] Rats (3–4 wk) Urban soil treated with biosolids (n=9) · Fed · RBA not calculated in %
· 35 d
· 71–125 mg Pb/kg diet
Hettiarachchi et al. 2003[59] Rats (12 wk) Joplin soil treated or not with Mn, phosphate, or CRYP (n=15) · Fed
· 21 d
· Blood RBA%: 34 (not treated); 19–33 (treated)
· 1–6 mg Pb/kg bw/d · Kidney RBA%: 48 (not treated); 19–39 (treated)
  · Liver RBA%: 27 (not treated); 19–21 (treated)
  · Bone RBA%: 34 (not treated); 20–24 (treated)
USEPA 2004, 2009[60, 61] Juvenile swine 2 Omaha smelter soils · Fast (small dough) · 83 & 96 (point estimate RBA %)
· 15 d
· 75–675 μg Pb/kg bw/d  
Casteel et al. 2006[42] Swine (5–6 wk) 19 soil or soil-like materials · Fast (small dough) · 1-105 (point estimate RBA %*)
· 15 d  
· 75–675 μg Pb/kg bw/d  
Marschner et al. 2006[62] Swine (70 d) 5 soils · Semi-fed (milk powder after 5 h fast) · 17-63 (RBA %)
    · 28 d  
    · 0.1-3.2 mg Pb/kg bw/d  
MSE Technology Application 2006[63] Swine (5–6 wk) Smelter soil HER-2930 · Fast (small dough) · 82 (point estimate RBA %)
    · 15 d  
    · 77–686 μg Pb/kg bw/d  
Smith Jr. et al. 2008[46] Rats (~ 21 d) Micropigs (~ 30 d) 2 smelter soils · Fed · Rats RBA %: 88 (blood), 62 (bone)
    · 30 d · Micropigs RBA %: 81 (blood), 68 (bone)
    · 50 μg Pb/g diet  
Smith Jr. et al. 2008[47] Rats (~ 21 d) 5 soils · Fed · 85±48 (blood RBA %)
    · 35 d · 91±12 (bone RBA %)
    · 6.8-150 μg Pb/g diet  
Bannon et al. 2009[64] Juvenile swine 8 small arms range soils · Fast (small dough) · 108±18 (point estimate RBA %)
    · 15 d  
    · 75–675 μg Pb/kg bw/d  
Caboche 2009 Denys et al. 2012[65, 66] Swine (28 d) 15 mining and smelting soils · Fast (small dough) · 6-100 (kidney RBA %)
    · 14 d · 8–100 (urine RBA %)
    · <1 to 8 mg Pb/kg bw/d · 9–100 (bone RBA %)
     · 10–85 (liver RBA %)
Juhasz et al. 2009[67] Swine (6–8 wk) 5 incinerator and urban soils · Fast · 10.1±8.7-19.1±14.9 (blood RBA %)
    · 5 d  
    · 0.1-1.2 mg Pb/kg bw (single dose)  
Smith et al. 2011[68] Adult mice 12 Pb impacted soils from various sources · Fast · 10±2.8-89±15.3 (blood RBA %)
    · 48 h  
    · 0.1-1.7 mg Pb (single dose)  
  1. RBA–relative bioavailability; ABA–absolute bioavailability; ND–not determined; §estimates include 0 & 100% in the confidence interval; USEPA and Casteel et al. point estimate [42, 43]; #data from the Ruby et al. review [69]; including soils tested by Schroder et al. [70]; *also available in USEPA [43].