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Table 1 Description of the raw materials analyzed in the study

From: Analysis of plant gums and saccharide materials in paint samples: comparison of GC-MS analytical procedures and databases

Common name Family and species General origins of plant family Origin
Acacia sp. obtained from the sap of Acacia giraffe trees Africa (India has several spp.) L.A. County Arboretum, USA
Angra (acacia) obtained from the sap of Acacia karoo trees South Africa University of Oxford, UK
Tahla (acacia) obtained from the sap of Acacia seyal trees Senegal to Sudan, Africa University of Oxford, UK
Gum Arabic obtained from the sap of trees Acacia senegal Tropical Africa Sigma
Mesquite obtained from the plant Prosopis sp. North and South America Mexico
Almond exuded by Prunus amygdalus trees Eurasia, North Africa Cal State Polytechnic, USA
Apricot exuded by the trees Prunus armeniaca Armenia, India, Greece Cal State Polytechnic, USA
Cherry exuded by the trees Prunus serrulata Northern Hemisphere Cal State Polytechnic, USA
Cherry exuded by the trees Prunus Cerasus Northern Hemisphere Opificio delle Pietre Dure, Florence
Peach exuded by the trees Prunus persica China/Persia Mogao China, Peach Tree Orchard
Plum exuded by the trees Prunus Eurasia Czechoslovakia, Prague
    Opificio delle Pietre Dure, Florence
Tragacanth obtained from the sap of the plants Astragalus Eurasia and Africa Sigma
    Kremer
    Local market Egypt
    Local market Persia
    Local market Anatolia
Ghatti exuded by the trees Anogeissus latifolia India Sigma
Karaya exuded by the plant Sterculia sp. India Sigma
Angico exuded by the trees Piptadenia sp. Brazil University of Parana, Brazil.
Cashew exuded by the plants Anacardium sp. India, South America, Southeast Asia, Africa EMBRAPA, Brazil
Carageean extracted from Seaweed China Serva Feinbiochemica, Germany
Locust bean exuded by the trees Ceratonia sp. Mediterranean Sigma
Guar is the endosperm of guar beans, legumen of the plants Cyamopsis tetragonolobus India Sigma
Orchid obtained from the fruit of the plants Orchis sp. World Wide Australia
Frankincense exuded by the trees Boswellia Arabic pensinsula and Africa Oman
    Somalia
Myrrh resin sap of the plants Commiphora Arabic pensinsula and Africa Local market
    Zecchi (Italy)
Mastic sap of the trees of the genus: Pistacia; species: Pistacia lentiscus Mediterranean region Zecchi (Italy)
Elephant apple Dillenia indica India India, local market
Escobilla Sida rhombifolia North America Mexico
Rice Powder seed of the plants Oryza sativa World Wide Aiko’s Art Materials, Japan
Mangosteen fruit obtained from the fruit of Garcinia mangostana plants Southeast Asia Jahan, India
Nopal Cactus obtained from the Opuntia-fiucs indica South America California, USA
Honey produced by Apis honey bees World Wide Local market, USA
    Acacia, Italy
    Millefiori, Italy
    Chesnut, Italy
Beeswax produced by Apis honey bees World Wide local market, Italy
Propolis produced by Apis honey bees World Wide local market, Italy
Cochineal dye produced from the scale insects Cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) primarily tropical and subtropical South America and Mexico Mexico, Local market
Henna dye produced from the leaves of the plants Lawsonia inermis tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, southern Asia, and northern Australasia in semi-arid zones Kremer
Indigo dye extracted from the Indigofera plants originally from Pakistan, Indigofera plants can be found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world Mexico, local market
Redwood dye    Kremer
paper/ wood (average)   World Wide Unknown
wood Beech hardwood Fagus sylvatica
  Oak hardwood Quercus roburs
  Pine softwood Pinus sylvestris
  Fir softwood Abies alba
White fluffy fungus obtained from Acremonium spp.   Mogao Cave, China
Luohanguo water extract fruit of the of Siraiti trees; species: Siraitia grosvenorii China local market, China
fig latex obtained from Common Fig trees (Ficus carica), when the fruit is detached from the branch Mediterranean region, Iran, Pakistan and northern India, and also in other areas of the world with a similar climate from fig tree, Italy
Hen's Egg   World Wide local market, Italy
Animal glue obtained from the cartilageneous parts of rabbits World Wide Zecchi (Italy)
Cow's Milk   World Wide local market, Italy